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THE EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLAGE IN THE NIGER DELTA A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

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THE EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLAGE IN THE NIGER DELTA

A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1            Background of the study

1.2            Statement of the problem

1.3            Research questions

1.4            Aims/Objective of the study

1.5            Significance of the study

1.6            Scope of the study

1.7            Limitation of the study

Chapter two

2.0            Literature review

2.1                                    Effect of Oil Spillage on farming

2.2                                    Effect of Oil Spillage on Fishing

2.3                                    Effect of oil spillage on Coastal Activities

2.4                                    Environmental Remediation measures.

Chapter three

Methodology

3.0            Population of the study

3.1                                    Sample/sampling techniques

3.2                                    Research instruments

3.3                                    Method of data collection

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data

4.0            Analysis of data and discussion of results

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1            Summary of findings

5.2            Conclusion

5.3            Recommendations

References

Questionnaire

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Oil spillage is the release of petroleum substance or product into the streams, lakes, rivers, beaches, seas, oceans and land, which becomes poisonous and thus make the water and land fouled and threatened the rich coastal habitat.

Oil spillage is an environmental problem in Nigeria. It is common in oil producing areas. During a spill, oil floats on land and water surface and forms an oil slick that is about 0.1mm thick continuing to spread, the stick becomes 0.01mm thick.

Oil is a very complex mixture of predominantly hydrocarbons the light {less dense} portions of oil are more toxic but also more likely to evaporate. Evaporation can reduce the volume of crude oil slick. Heavier oil can wash to the shore causing serious short-term harm to shellfish and plants life. oil spillage on soil makes it unsatisfactory for the plant growth. This is due to insufficient aeration of the soil because of air from the spaces between the soil particles by oil spillage.

Tarry lumps, float, sink or cover habitats of shallow water organisation. They may also foul beaches. Weather is a key factor for oil spills; wind can cause an emulsion, which can least for weeks and be difficult to pump.

During the early stages, coming in contact with the soil, may kill seabirds and mammals, because of the toxic chemicals. Oil on feathers hinders water repellency and poisons the birds from the oral consumption of the toxic materials fur bearing animals, seabirds and seals lose their buoyancy and insulation when oil fouls their fur they either drown or suffer hypothermial and die the effects on fish are unclean. Fish may simply swim away but floating eggs can be destroyed.

In areas where wildlife is very healthy or full recovery has been seen within two or four years but if the spill occurred during migration or breeding season, it could be devastating and prompt action is crucial.

The communities have remained grossly socio economically under developed and pauperized amidst the immense oil wealth owing to systematic disequilibrium the production. Exchange relationship between the state, the transnational companies and the people. Enormous money had been derived from oil export but the area has been subjected to severe land degradation, socio-economic disorganization, increasing poverty, misery militancy occupation, and bloody violence.

Oil extraction has impacted most disastrously on the socio-physical environmental of the Niger Delta region. Oil bearing communities massively threatening the fragile subsistent peasant economy and biodiversity and hence their entire social livelihood and very survival. The socio and environmental costs of oil production have been extensive. They include destruction of wildlife and biodiversity, loss of fertile soil, pollution of air and drinking water, degradation of farmland and damage to aquatic ecosystem, all of which include caused serious health problems for the inhabitants of areas surrounding oil production the occurrence of oil spillage in Nigeria is frequent in February 2001, another soil spillage was reported in Ughilli which led to pollution of the water, there by making it not navigable for fishes and carrying out economic activities and the killing of fishes in the river.

Most of the people who lived in the area depended upon fishing for their livelihood. The oil spillage changed their lifestyle and they lost their jobs in the local government.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

There are a lot of environmental problems in Nigeria such as desert encroachment, wide life depleion, pollution, flooding, land and water and air pollution among others. The exploitation of oil in the Niger Delta region has brought to bear oil spillage and its numerous effects. Hence, this study tries to find out the causes and effects of oil spillages and environmental remediation measures of the oil companies in the area.

1.3            RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions for this study include the following;

  1. What are the causes of oil spillage in the area?
  2. What are the effects of oil spillage on the farming in the area?
  3. What is the effect of oil spillage on fishing festival?
  4. Is fishing affected by oil spillage in the area?
  5. Are the environmental remediation measures the oil companies adequate?

1.4            OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To examine the causes of oil spillage in the area.
  2. To find out the effects of oil spillage in the area.
  3. To know the extent to which the oil spillage affect the farmland in the area.
  4. To examine the effects of oil spillage on fishing in the area.
  5. To see if the environmental remediation measures by the oil companies are adequate.

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

It will help to create public awareness and understanding of oil spills problems and appreciation of their responsibilities to the environment. Industrial wastes from the oil industries could be used to address the impact of infrastructural deficiency in the local communities, for example the disposal of gas from flaring could constitute the basis for generating power for urban and rural electrification. Other industrial waste such as plastics synthetic fibers, detergent and solvent could form the yield stock for petrol chemical industry. However, the wealth derived from oil sources exploit this oil producing areas socio culturally, socio-economically and psychologically.

It will also highlight the extent of the effect of oil spillage on the public and point relevant oil spillage issues deserving the attention of public enlightenment; that is enlightenment campaign through print media, radio and television if the government can implement laws, policies and enforcement measures within the existing production regions.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The subject matter of the study is oil spillage it determines the causes and effects of oil spillage and environmental remediation measures that has been put in place by the oil companies.

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