A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JESUS’ CONVERSATION WITH THE SAMARITAN WOMAN
A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JESUS’ CONVERSATION WITH THE
It is a known fact that Discourse Analysis is the analysis of language in use. This
work shaowed how discourse analysis and pragmatic elements can be used in
decoding facts and foregrounded information in the Holy Bible especially Jesus’
conversation with the Samaritan woman. The discourse elements such as:
participants, context, turn-taking, exchange structure, reference, presupposition,
inference, intention were used to bring out the foregrounded information in the
conversation. In conclusion, we were able to show that addressee deduced or
inferred more information from addressor’s utterance beyond what the original
intention might have been.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
1.1 General Introduction 1
1.2 Purpose 2
1.3 Scope and delimitation 2
1.4 Justification 3
1.5 Methodology 3
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Discourse 4
2.3 Discourse Analysis 5
2.4 Elements of discourse analysis 8
2.4.2 Context 8
2.4.3 Turn-taking 11
2.4.4 Exchange structure 12
126.96.36.199 Initiation, response and feedback 12
188.8.131.52 Adjacency pairs 13
2.4.5 Topic 13
2.5 Pragmatic concepts of discourse 14
2.5.1 Presupposition 14
2.5.2 Implicature 15
2.5.3 Reference 17
2.5.4 Inference 18
2.5.5 Intention 18
2.6 Data description 19
2.6.1 Jesus Christ 20
2.6.2 The Samaritan woman 20.
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Datum 1 21
3.3 Datum 2 27
3.4 Datum 3 31
4.1 Summary 37
4.2 Findings 38
1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Over the years, several researches have been conducted in the field of discourse
analysis with various definitions given to it. Brown and Yule (1983:1) opine that
“the analysis of discourse is necessarily the analysis of language in use”.
Ambiguity is the word used by Stubb (1993:1) to describe discourse analysis. He
says; “the term discourse analysis is very ambiguous…to refer to mainly the
linguistic analysis of naturally occurring connected spoken or written discourse”.
Cooks (1996:1) argues that “although the main focus of discourse analysis is on
language, it is not concerned with language alone. It also examines the concept of
Discourse analysis has been applied to the analysis of many literary works by
scholars. Cooks (1996) uses discourse analysis to analyze advertisement. Woods
(2006) examines the discourse of advertising, politics, law, medicine and the
discourse of education respectively. Laniru (2010) uses it for “who wants to be a
millionaire,” a television program in Nigeria.
This investigation is an attempt to take discourse analysis some steps further,
using its basic elements such as turn taking, exchange structure, context, participants
and so on, alongside some pragmatic features to make explicit the implicit aspect of
the interaction between our participants, Jesus and the Samaritan woman as recorded
in John chapter four of the holy Bible. Our expectation is that this will give a better
understanding and insight into the conversation.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The Holy Bible is one of the most sought after books in the world today.
Jesus Christ who has His name or image as the central subject of discourse from
Genesis to Revelation is possibly the most mentioned name in the universe.
However, the interpretation of many of the teachings, conversation and events he
partook in, are being subjected to diverse meaning explication by several people both
in the field of religion and outside religion.
A discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman
attempts to show how elements of discourse analysis can be used in decoding facts
and foregrounded information from the Holy Bible.
1.3 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
This research seeks to undertake a discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with
the Samaritan woman. It attempts to show how best discourse and some pragmatic
elements can be used to decode the meaning of conversation in the Holy Bible.
Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman has been selected from several
Biblical conversations just as a sample among others.
Some researchers have conducted investigations into the Holy Bible using
discourse analysis. For instance, Balogun’s “A Discourse Analysis of selected
parables of Jesus Christ (2010)”. However, as at the period of this study to the best
of our knowledge, no researcher has used discourse analysis to analyze Jesus’
conversation with the Samaritan woman.
Moreover, “A discourse analysis of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan
woman” will not only add to the knowledge bank but it will show how effectively
discourse analysis can be used in decoding meaning in conversations in the Holy
Bible which has been described by many as being more spiritual than psychological.
Our primary data will be drawn from the New International Version of the
Holy Bible because of its simplicity and general acceptability. The data will be as
recorded by Saint John chapter four (John 4). It will be presented excluding the
writer’s comments in an exchange structure format. The elements of discourse
analysis found within shall be used alongside some pragmatic elements.