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1.1  Background of Study

An advertiser can be defined as a person, organization or company that places advertisements in order to target audience or customers. The entire business of a commercial organization or company starts with advertising. That is to say that the rise and fall of the profit of a company depends solely on the expenditure incurred by the advertiser.

A form of marketing communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some actions, usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological support.

In Latin, “ad vertere” means to “to turn toward”. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.

According to Wikipedia Atom Feed, Advertising is the communication relayed from companies to persuade an audience to purchase their products this communication is usually through various form of paid media like TV and radio commercials, print adverts, bill boards and more recently, product placement.

Adverts are placed where advertisers believe they will reach the largest, most relevant audience.

Commercial business use advertising to drive the consumption of their product, while non-profit organization may place adverts to raise awareness or encourage a change in behavior or perception.

Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various old media including mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television advertisement, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail, or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through “branding” which involves associating a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers.

Non commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include, political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a Public Service Announcement (PSA).

According to Jefkins (1998-187) defines advertising media as that which supplies the vehicles for advertising message, carrying them to the right readers, viewers, listeners or passers by. It may also be referred to as the vehicles that propel the messages to where they are needed”.

Advertising media selection is the process of choosing the most cost – effective media for advertising to achieve the required coverage and number of expures in a target audience.

Media selection is typically measured on two dimensions: frequency and spread.

In frequency, it is insufficient for a target audience member to have just one “Opportunity To See (OTS)” the advertisement. In traditional media, around five OTS are believed or required for a reasonable impact. Some research shows that advertisements require significant exposure to consumers before they can even register.

Those viewers who receive fewer OTS are insufficiently motivated, and extra advertising is wasted on those who receive more.

The major steps in media selection as:-

Deciding on reach, frequency and impact, secondly, choosing among major media types. Thirdly, Decoding on media timing.

The advertiser decides on the reach and frequency of the media channel he is about to choose.

He further considers the percentage of people in the target audience who are exposed to the advertising campaign during a given period of time. Frequency refers to how many times the average person in the target market is exposed to the message. Media impact involves the qualitative value.

The advertiser must decide on how to schedule the advertising over the course of the year. There are different types of media channels open to the advertisers.

They are the Electronic or Broadcasting Media, which includes the radio and television.

According to Neli Kokemuller, magazines and newspapers are important print media used by companies to deliver advertising messages. They share similarities as print media, the strengths and weaknesses of each medium are distinct.

Newspapers tend to offer opportunities for the broadcast range of advertisers, but magazines have strengths in helping you connect with a specific audience.

Not minding these few merits they still have their demerit which is now left for the advertisers to determine.

Advertisers some times choose among magazines and newspaper based on their strength, weakness, lead times, creativity, life span and cost effectiveness.

Magazines are typically read by highly interested audiences because there are specific magazines for various topics. It allows you to reach an audience that has higher potential for persuasion if your products relate closely to the topic of the publication magazines are however more costly than newspapers.

Newspapers on the other hand offer affordable advert rates which benefits small businesses on a tight budget.

However, despite the fact that newspapers offer color, newspaper design it isn’t nearly as captivating it diminishes as large copy runs. They are useful when reaching a broad geographic market, but they are limited if you have a more specific demographic market.

Newspapers are highly advantageous on targeting geographic market segments. Its publications include local, regional and national newspapers. The lead time of a newspaper is short which an advantage.

However, magazine has narrow audience, long-lead time and more expensive. Though they are more creative and have longer life than newspaper.