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AMELIORATING ROLE OF N.P.K. FERTILIZER ON THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF Ni ON (SORGHUM) ROOT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES

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AMELIORATING ROLE OF N.P.K. FERTILIZER ON THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF Ni ON (SORGHUM) ROOT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES

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AMELIORATING ROLE OF N.P.K. FERTILIZER ON THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF Ni ON (SORGHUM) ROOT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                         i

Certification                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                            iv

Table of Contents                                                             vi

Abstract                                                                           ix

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction and Literature Review 1

1.1   Introduction                                                             1

  • Literature Review 3
    • Definition of heavy metals 3
    • Characteristics of Nickel 4
    • Nickel in the environment 5
    • Biological roles of nickel 6
    • Absorption of nickel by plant 7
    • Accumulation of Nickel in plants 9
    • Nickel and photosynthesis 10
    • Effects of nickel on plant respiration 10
    • Metabolic effects of nickel 11
    • Effects of nickel on enzyme activity 11
    • Mechanism of nickel toxicity 12
    • Strategies of plant tolerance to nickel toxicity 14
    • Management of nickel toxicity 18
      • Land management procedure 18

1.2.13.2   Phytoremediation                                             19

1.2.14      The use of micro-organisms to mitigate nickel toxicity                                                            22

  • Scientific classification of Sorghum 23
  • Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of

Sorghum                                                                  25

1.5   Classification of sorghum                                                28

1.6   Uses of Sorghum                                                     29

1.7   Germination / Growth Stages of Sorghum                       32

1.7.1  Growth Stages                                                               32

1.72 Nutrient Uptake                                                       36

1.8   Diseases of Grain Sorghum                                     37

1.9   Activities that induce Germination                          38

1.10 Metabolism of Germinating Seeds                           40

1.11 NPK (15-15-15) Fertilizer                                         41

1.11.1Catalase                                                                 44

1.12 History of Catalase                                                   45

1.12.1  Activities of Catalase                                            46

1.12.2 Molecular mechanism of catalase action                      47

1.13 Superoxide Dismatase                                             48

1.13.1Types of Superoxide Dismutase                             49

1.13.2 Physiological Importance of Superoxide Dismutase      51

1.13.3 Use of Superoxide Dismutase in Cosmetic            52

1.14 Peroxidase                                                               52

1.14.1 Isozymes of Glutathione Peroxidase                      53

1.15 Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species           53

1.16 Objective of the Study                                              56

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Materials and Method 55

2.1   Materials                                                                  55

2.1.1        Contaminant                                                           55

  • Fertilizer 55
  • Quantity of soil used 55
  • Source of Soil 55
  • Source of Soybean seed used 56
  • Instruments/Apparatus used 56
  • Reagents used for the study 57
  • Methods 59
    • Preparation of Soil 59
    • Contamination of Soil 59
    • Viability test of Seeds 59
    • Experimental design 59
    • Biochemical analysis 62
      • Estimation of total protein 61
      • Estimation of malondialdehyde level 64
      • Estimation of Superoxide Dismutase activity 66
      • Estimation of Catalase activity 68
      • Estimation of peroxidase activity 70

2.2.6          Statistical Analysis                                                        72

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Results 73

3.1   Soil Analysis                                                            78

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Discussion and Conclusion 79

 

Bibliography                                                                    83

Appendix One: Reagents Preparation                                       97

Appendix Two:  Statistics                                                101

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study investigated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutothione peroxidase (GP) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root of sorghum grown in soils contaminated with 30ppm nickel, 30ppm nickel +20ppm fertilizer and 30ppm nickel + 40ppm fertilizer.  Sixty sorghum seeds were germinated in these contaminated soils and  were harvested after 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks of planting.  Treatment of the plants with 30ppm nickel significantly increased (P < 0.05) the activities of SOD and the level of MDA in the roots compared with the controls.  Also, the treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the activities of CAT and GP in the roots compared with controls.

The study also revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activities of SOD and the level of MDA in plants grown in 30ppm Ni + 20ppm NPK fertilizer and 30ppm Ni + 40ppm NPK fertilizer respectively compared with those grown in 30ppm Ni concentration.  These results show that 30ppm Nickel is toxic to sorghum roots for it increases significantly the production of reactive oxygen species but decreases significantly the excretion of reactive oxygen species.  This is due to significant increase in the activity of SOD but significant decrease in the activities of CAT and GP.  These results also showed that 30ppm Nickel damaged sorghum roots by significantly increasing lipid peroxidation and the levels of MDA.  In addition, the results revealed that 20ppm and 40ppm NPK fertilizer had ameliorating effect on the toxicity caused by 30ppm nickel.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

 

1.1   INTRODUCTION

 

Trace metals are redistributed in environment by fossil fuel combustion.  This release can be expected to increase soil levels of trace elements such as Ni2+ resulting in a concomitant increase in the concentration of Ni2+ in plants and possibly in the food chain (Dominic et al, 1978).

Nickel (Ni) is an essential micronutrient for plants since it is the active centre of the enzyme urease required for nitrogen metabolism in higher plants (Yan et al, 2008).  Nickel deficiencies lead to reduced urease activity in tissue cultures of sorghum, rice and tobacco and in excessive accumulation of urea and toxic damage to the leaves of leguminous plants such as sorghum (Peter and Andre, 1986).  However, excess Ni is known to be toxic and many studies have been conducted concerning Ni toxicity of various plant species.

The most common symptoms of nickel toxicity in plants are inhibition of growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, sugar transport and water relations (Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2006).  Heavy metal affects plants in two ways.  First, it alters reaction rates and influences the kinetic properties of enzymes leading to changes in plant metabolism (Yan et al, 2008).  Second, excessive heavy metals lead to oxidant stress.

During the period of metal treatment, plants develop different resistance mechanisms to avoid or tolerate metal stress, including the changes of lipid composition, enzyme activity, sugar or amino acid contents, and the level of soluble proteins and gene expressions.  These adaptations entail qualitative and/or quantitative advantage, and affect plant existence (Schutzendubel and Polle, 2002).

It is known that excessive heavy metal exposure may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, and oxidative stress would arise if the balance between ROS generation and removal were broken.  Oxidative stress is a part of general stress that arises when an organism experiences different external or internal factors changing its homeostasis.  In response, an organism either aims to maintain the previous status by activation of corresponding protective mechanisms or goes to a new stable state (Mittler, 2002).

In several plants, Ni has been shown to induce changes in the activity of ROS – scavenging enzymes, including SOD catalase and glutathione peroxidase (Yan et al, 2008).

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nickel on the activities of sorghum root antioxidant enzymes and also monitor the ameliorating effects of N.P.K. Fertilizer.

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  • Store Name: project topics
  • Vendor: ProWriters
  • Address: 15 ikpa road
    Uyo
    Akwa Ibom
    520231
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