AN ANALYSIS OF GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER ON COVERAGE OF CRIME IN NIGERIA
The press sensationalizes crime stories, over reports violent crime stories like homicide, assault, etc. in comparison to non-violent stories and that violent stories are usably reported disproportionately compared to their incidence in official crime statistics or victims surveys, and that sensational reporting of crime contribute to coencern crime over crime among the public is point of concern. This project examines the print media and the creation of fear of crime, amount and sources of crime in the print media (Guardian Newspapers) and patterns of crime reporting bringing out some core values. This project also acknowledges reporting of crime as Epidemic and examines some vital suggestions towards uplifting the values of the press (Guardian) in crime reporting. Guardian Newspapers is used to scrutinized the coverage of crime in Nigeria. The sample size for the Newspaper is Thirty One (31) Editions from July – December, 2008. Thirty one editions were sampled to get relevant response and coverage on the issue of the study. Findings revealed that the mass media tried to uphold the theory of social responsibility and doing this, they publish matters on crime in Nigeria, thereby making the issue important and relevant in the country.
Research shows that most nature of crime covered under this study was straight news format with most of the crime stories written by reports of Guardian Newspapers. The direction of the report was positive in nature
Similarly, the study indicated that the media is vibrant in their coverage of the fight against crime.
Recommendations were made on how the mass media can help to educate and interprete the aftermath of crime activities to people as well as sensitize them in the need to totally eradicate crime and improve on the media’s coverage on the subject matter.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 4
1.2 History of Case Study – – – – – – – 5
1.3 Aims and Objectives- – – – – – – 6
1.4 Statement of Problem – – – – – – – 7
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – 8
1.6 Research Questions – – – – – – 9
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 9
1.8 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 13
2.1 Crime and the Press – – – – – – 15
2.2 Sources and Mount of Crime News – – – – 18
2.3 Reporting Crime as Epidemic – – – – – 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – – 26
3.1 Instrument of Data Collection – – – – – 27
3.2 Advantages of Content Analysis – – – – – 27
3.3 Area of Study – – – – – – – 27
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – 28
3.5 Sampling Size – – – – – – – 28
3.6 Validity of the Instrument – – – – – 29
3.7 Appreciation of Instrument – – – – – 29
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 30
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Unit of Analysis – – – – – – – 31
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Data Sheet – – – – – – – – 34
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 38
CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.0 Summary – – – – – – – – 40
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 40
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – 42
Any publication containing current public News, editorial, feature article and advertising printed for sale and published periodically or daily is seen as a newspaper. It belongs to the first category of the media whose other categories was built on, it is like other media which primary function is to inform, educate, enlighten, entertain and surveillance. Despite this, it has a unique quality of remaining dominant over centuries.
It is essential to point out that the birth and growth of Nigeria press is a historical process in which many individuals participated without foreseeing what the ultimate product of their labour to be.
Print journalism started in Nigeria in 1846 with installation of a printing press at Calabar by the Presbyterian mission with sole aim of increasing the literary level among local people through the writing of short essay on various subject particularly religious matter.
Despite the fact that the Calabar experiment fail, it set the ball rolling for Newspapers production in Nigeria. In 1854, a missionary turn-journalist Rev. Henry Townsend established his own printing press and inaugurated a printing school in the missionary compound in Abeokuta and by 1854 founded a newspaper called Iwe Iroyin. This was the first Newspaper which was for the reading pleasure of the Egba people. Before it folded in 1867, it’s circulation was about 3,000 per day.
The first Newspaper founded by a Nigerian was by ritoyi Agasa in Lagos in 1914 a pro-government paper which was hated by many and then in 1921, Hernest Ikoli established the Africa messenger which only lasted for five years.
This research titled “An Analysis of Guardian Newspaper Coverage of Crime in Nigeria” will scrutinize reportage of the mentioned media and how the media act as the conscience of society it find itself in.
Crime as a social phenomenon is fundamental aspect in all human life. Nigeria has thus been referred to as one of the most crime prone nation of the world because of her low social security level and social activities which are criminal in nature. Crime can be seen as an “Internal violation of the criminal law and committed without defense or excuse and penalty by state felony or misdemeanor through judicial proceeding” according to (Toppan 1974 page. 138). Toppan view crime from a Legal Perspective Societies defines crime as the branch of one or more rules of laws for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe punishment. Wikipedia/encyclopedia defined crime from the normative perspective which is a deviant behaviour that violates prevailing norms, cultural standard prescribing how human ought to behave normally. The approach views the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seek to understand how chaining social, political, psychological and economic condition may affect the current definition or meaning of crime when leads to legal, law enforcement or penal responses by the society or social institution.
Nigeria is obviously experiencing increase in crime rate. In a single edition of our daily Newspaper, television report or radio report many criminal activities are reported which is emanating from the urban. This is due to the emphasis which is placed on urbanization of modernization of cities, towns at the cost of the rural areas leading to rural-urban migration. This union result has lead to the increase of crime at both sides due to the over strengthening of infrastructure or under utilize infrastructure by the able youths. This in turn leads to economic depreciation, poverty, unemployment and increase of potentials for crime or crime itself.
Nevertheless, Newspaper like other media is primarily a disseminator of information which could be in views formal, editorial, feature report e.t.c. This dissemination of information is about the activities of mankind either on his personal, social life, politics, economy, crime, sport or leisure for the purpose of informing, educating, entertain or enlightenment.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role of the press over the years has been argued by authorities whether the press serve as catalyst or a tool reducing the crime wave in the society.
According to dr. Adidi Uyo in his book titled “Mass Communication Media”, “Classification and Characteristic” Newspapers are not stapled, they are folded and the material on which they are printed, are cheaper, therefore making for easier production and distribution. With this, the information presented by the newspaper remain for a long time whether as a catalyst or as a tool used in reducing the criminal activities due to its physical attribute. The ability to remain after a long time makes the communication a vibrant one.
Newspapers as categorized by Nababa Sanda Gusan in a book titled “The Mass Media in Nigeria” are of six classifications. These classifications is in accordance with the time they are put to bed. We have the daily, bi-weekly, forth nightly, monthly and quarterly. The most commonly found newspaper is the daily which is found or daily or found at the news stand everyday. The bi-weekly is produced twice in a week, the weekly is produced once a week, while the fortnightly is when newspaper is published after every two weeks.
- HISTORY OF CASE STUDY
Guardian Newspapers is an independent newspaper published in Nigeria by Guardian Newspapers limited. The newspaper came into circulation in the early 70s. It was the main competitor to the Punch where it came to advertising, albeit not for circulation. Guardian Newspapers is one of the few relatively durability is as a result of its broad range of issues and contacts and non partisanship.
The “guardian” in its early stages of circulation was one of the few dailies that did not publish advertised obituaries. But since 1989, the policy has changes and elitist advertisement now makes a large percentage of its revenue.
The “Guardian” is a liberal paper, committed to the best traditions and ideals of republican democracy. It is committed to the principles of individual freedom, but believes that all citizens have duties as well as rights, it owes allegiance to no political party, ethnic community, religious or other interest group.
The “Guardian” as part of what it stands for, does not, in principle, object to the ideology of free enterprise, since this would be inconsistent with its commitment to individual liberty and freedom. The “Guardian” believes it is the duty of the state to ensure that less privileged citizens have reasonable and fair access to the basic necessities of life.
With its International Headquarters in Lagos, Guardian newspapers is circulated across the length and breadth of Nigeria and even abroad. It has three major departments, thus; editorial, business and mechanical. The Motto of the “Guardian” is consciences, nurtured by truth.