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APPLICATION OF INTELLIGENT WELL COMPLETION IN OPTIMIZING PRODUCTION FROM OIL RIM RESERVOIRS

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APPLICATION OF INTELLIGENT WELL COMPLETION IN OPTIMIZING PRODUCTION FROM OIL RIM RESERVOIRS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 CERTIFICATION PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………. ii

 

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………… iv

 

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v

 

 TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi

 

 LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii

 

 LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix

 

NOMENCLATURE……………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi

 

 CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

1.0      INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

 

1.1      Background of Study………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

1.2      Statement of Problems…………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

 

1.3      Research Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

 

1.4      Significance of Study………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

 

1.5      Project Scope and Limitations…………………………………………………………………………… 5

 

 CHAPTER TWO…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

 

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………… 6

 

2.1      Oil Rim Reservoirs………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

 

 

 

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2.1.1      Oil Rim Development Strategies……………………………………………………………………. 7

 

2.1.2      Technical Challenges of Oil Rim Reservoirs………………………………………………….. 10

 

2.2      Oil Rim Reservoir and Horizontal Wells…………………………………………………………… 13

 

2.2.1      Horizontal Well Completion Techniques……………………………………………………….. 15

 

2.2.2      Limitations of Horizontal Well in Producing Oil Rim Reservoirs……………………… 16

 

2.3      Application of Intelligent Wells………………………………………………………………………. 18

 

2.4      Inflow Control Devices (ICD)………………………………………………………………………… 20

 

2.4.1      Historical Development………………………………………………………………………………. 21

 

2.4.2      Passive Inflow Control Devices (PICDs) Designs………………………………………….. 23

 

 CHAPTER THREE……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

 

3.0      METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

 

3.1      Field description……………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

 

3.2      Modeling approach………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

 

 CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37

 

4.0      RESULTS AND ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………… 37

 

 CHAPTER FIVE………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

 

5.0      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………….. 42

 

5.1      Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

 

5.2      Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

 

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45

 

 

 

vii

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

 

 Table 3.1: Fluid density and viscosity…………………………………………………………………………… 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

viii

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

 Figure 2.1: Types of Thin Oil Column Reservoirs; a) Pancake Shape Thin Oil Column, b) Rim

 

 Shape Thin Oil Column (Rahim et al., 2013). …………………………………………………………………... 6
 Figure 2.2: Oil Rim Production and Depletion Strategy Screening Guide Line (Olamigoke and
 Peacock, 2009). ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
 Figure 2.3: Oil Rim Development Terrific Light Screening Guideline (Rahim et al, 2013). …... 9
 Figure 2.4: Coning in (A) Vertical and (B) Horizontal well ……………………………………………... 11
 Figure   2.5:   A)   Schematic   of   a   Vertical   Well
 Schematic of a Horizontal Well. …………………………………………………………………………………... 14
 Figure 2.6: A Schematic of Various Completion Techniques for Horizontal Wells (Joshi,  
 1991). ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 16
 Figure 2.7: Water coning due to (A) heel-toe effect, (B) permeability variation. …………………. 18
 Figure 2.8: Homogenous formation without ICD (left) and with FloRecTM ICD (right). …….. 19
 Figure 2.9: Heterogeneous formation without ICD (left) and with FloRecTM ICD (right). ….. 19
 Figure 2.10: Original design of the ICD based on channels of adjustable length (Al-Kelaiwi and
 Davies, 2007). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
 Figure 2.11: General ICD fluid flow path ………………………………………………………………………. 24
 Figure 2.12: A Hellical Channel-type ICD (Al-Kelaiwi and Davies, 2007). ……………………….. 25
 Figure 2.13: Nozzle-type ICD (Ellis et al., 2010). …………………………………………………………... 26
 Figure 2.14: An Orifice type ICD (Al-Kelaiwi and Davies, 2007). ……………………………………. 27

 

 

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 Figure 3.1: Multi-segment well model; green = annulus segment, red = ICD segment, blue =

 

tubing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

 

 Figure 3.2: Reservoir model showing the oil rim…………………………………………………………….. 30

 

 Figure 3.3: Water-oil relative permeability curve…………………………………………………………….. 31

 

 Figure 3.4: Gas-oil relative permeability curve……………………………………………………………….. 31

 

 Figure 3.5: Oil inflow profile along the well length without ICDs……………………………………. 34

 

 Figure 3.6: Water inflow profile along the well length without ICDs……………………………….. 34

 

 Figure 3.7: Gas inflow profile along the well length without ICDs…………………………………… 35

 

 Figure 4.1: Cumulative oil production…………………………………………………………………………… 37

 

 Figure 4.2: Recovery factor…………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

 

 Figure 4.3: Water cut………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39

 

 Figure 4.4: Gas-oil ratio………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

 

 Figure 4.5: Oil inflow profile along the well length with ICDs………………………………………… 40

 

 Figure 4.6: Water inflow profile along the well length with ICDs…………………………………….. 41

 

 Figure 4.7: Gas inflow profile along the well length with ICDs……………………………………….. 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

NOMENCLATURE

 

 

 

 

AFI:                Annular Flow Isolator

 

EOR:               Enhanced Oil Recovery

 

GOC:              Gas-Oil Contact

 

GOR:              Gas-Oil Ratio

 

ICD:                Inflow Control Device

 

ICV:                Inflow Control Valve

 

PICD:             Passive Inflow Control Device

 

PLT:                Production Logging Test

 

WOC:             Water-Oil Contact

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xi

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

 

  • INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

  • Background of Study

 

An oil rim reservoir is a saturated reservoir with an oil column of limited thickness in the order of tens of feet, overlain by a gas cap and underlain by an aquifer. These reservoirs are common throughout the world, and despite their low pay thickness they can still contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbon-in-place (Fajhan and David, 2007). Ezzam et al. (2010) opined that maximizing oil recovery in this type of reservoirs is done by keeping the oil rim in contact with the producing wells at all times which is achievable by balancing the water-oil-contact (WOC) and gas-oil-contact (GOC) movement. For a thin oil rim reservoir with a large gas cap and strong aquifer, achieving the said goal is very challenging (Ezzam et al., 2010; Vijay et al., 1998). Rahim et al. (2013) mentioned water/gas coning and breakthrough, spread out resources, complicated production mechanism, presence of transition and invasion zones, oil smearing, and a low recovery factor of less than 18% as technical challenges of developing oil rim reservoirs.

 

Among the various challenges of producing oil rim reservoirs, water/gas coning and breakthrough is of utmost consequence. Coning is the mechanism whereby gas or water moves toward the production interval of an oil well in a cone or crestlike manner created by fluid production. It is caused by the pressure drawdown within the oil column close to the wellbore being sufficiently large to overcome viscous and gravity forces and draw the water

 

or gas into the well. The specific problems of water and gas coning are:

 

1

 

  • Costly added water and gas handling

 

  • Gas production from the original or secondary gas cap reduces pressure without obtaining the displacement effects associated with gas drive

 

  • Reduced efficiency of the depletion mechanism

 

  • The water is often corrosive and its disposal costly

 

  • The afflicted well may be abandoned early

 

  • Loss of the total field overall recovery

 

 

Delaying the encroachment and production of gas and water are essentially the controlling factors in maximizing the field’s ultimate oil recovery.

 

This problem of water and gas coning is so severe that exploitation of oil rims by means of vertical wells becomes technically and economically infeasible. When a vertical well is drilled through an oil rim reservoir, the length of the reservoir contact in the oil column is small. This low reservoir contact area and the large pressure drop that is associated with flow into a vertical well means that such wells are highly susceptible to coning. Since early 1980’s horizontal wells have been used in such situations to defer the water and gas ingress and thus prolong the life of the producer (Vijay and James, 1998). Rahim et al (2013) stated that the use horizontal wells can significantly increase the well contact to the reservoir and can improve the well productivity even up to five times of the vertical wells in the oil rim reservoirs. Thus, the use of horizontal wells has made development of oil rim reservoirs economically viable.

 

Despite the fact that there are substantial advantages of using a horizontal well over a conventional vertical well in developing an oil rim reservoir, Kabir et al. (2004) stated that placement of horizontal wells in a thin-oil column (< 40 ft) is a challenge and depends on

 

2

 

 

relative drive indices of the gas cap and the aquifer. Also, -toehe “heeffect”l in h wells, characteristics of the fluids involved, and variations in permeability can result in

 

unbalanced inflow along the horizontal section and accelerate early water breakthrough and uneven inflow downhole. Hence, horizontal wells are still subject to dual water and gas cresting. In the backdrop of this, research efforts were significantly increased not only to optimize the operations, but also to find supporting technologies to further mitigate the problem of coning in oil rim reservoirs.

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