ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 10
Research Questions 11
Significance of the Study 14
Scope of the Study 16
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework 17
Definition of Information Communication Technology 18
E-Learning as Concept 19
Definition of Business Education 24
Historical Overview of E-Learning 26
Theoretical Framework 27
Operant Conditioning Learning Theory 28
Thorndike’s Law of Effect Learning Theory 28
Constructivism Learning Theory 30
Forms of E-Learning Technologies 32
Models of E-Learning 40
Emerging Changes of Business Education Programme Due
to E-Learning Technologies 42
Benefits of Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Business
Education Programme 45
Constraints to Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in
Business Education Programme 48
Review of Empirical Studies 50
Summary of Reviewed Related Literature 55
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study 58
Population of the Study 58
Sample and Sampling Technique 60
Method of Data Analysis 61
Validation of the Instrument 62
Reliability of the Instrument 63
Method of Data Collection 63
Appendix I (Letter of Request to complete Questionnaire) 68
Appendix II (Questionnaire) 69
Appendix III (Reliability Test) 80
Background to the Study
Business education has been described as education for and about business (Okwuanaso & Nwazor, 2000; Nwosu, 2003). In other words, business education teaches knowledge and competencies required in business. Business education is considered as the pedagogical knowledge and business competencies necessary for teaching business attitude, concept, skills and knowledge. This could be for personal or vocational usage or career as an administrator, manager or teacher. Business education is seen as a programme that has promoted skills which enable an individual to function effectively and efficiently, as an employee, or employer. Chukwu and Ishiaku (2004) in Olumese (2007) stated that business education is a comprehensive discipline whose instructional programme encompasses the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed by all persons in order to effectively manage their personal business and economic system and also the skills needed for entry into employment and advancement in a broad range of career. In order to achieve this objective, the use of technology becomes very important as a means of learning and teaching.
The use of information and communication technology as a means of improving the efficiency and effectiveness in business education is not in doubt. With the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT), there will be changes in pedagogical delivery system. Akudulu (2006) believed that the advent of information communication technology has given rise to the formulation of new educational objectives which requires innovation and modification in the content, method and evaluation strategies. According to Omolade (2003) in Olumese (2008) the three methods that can be used in teaching business education are through formal education, non-formal education and informal education. Akinpelu, Adewale and Otunla (1999) noted that these three methods can utilize information communication technology (ICT) such as micro computers, teleconference, video conferencing, electronic mail, cyber space and internet, computer, teleconferencing and audio conferencing. Others include hyper text, video text, communication satellite, interactive cable television technique.
E-learning, can be described as a “virtual classroom”. Edigbo (2004) described it as a group of students assembled in a common virtual classroom to meet an instructor on-line (that is, in cyber space). The participants enroll by sending an e-mail to the instructor. The instructor sends out learning materials by electronic means to each participant. Participants submit their assignments electronically to the instructor and receive corrections later. In this way, e-learning is established.
The Wikipedia (2010) refers to e-learning as the use of electronic media and information communication technologies (ICT) in education. Broadly speaking, it includes all forms of educational technology in learning and teaching. E-learning is synonymous with multimedia learning, technology – enhanced learning (TEL), computer based interaction (CBL), computer based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer aided instruction (CAI), internet based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, virtual learning environment (VTE) (which is also called learning platforms) and digital educational collaboration (DEC).
E-learning if integrated into business education programme could attract the following benefits to the students, lecturers and other stakeholders in business education:
- Provide access to information with the latest technologies to support professionalism in business education (Ile and Okoli, 2003).
- Enhance the development of standard through curriculum development design and innovation, which will put in place appropriate human and material instructional resources for effective teaching and learning.
- Help to engage student in learning process and skills which will be useful in social life and in the world of work.
- It promotes motivation of students and teachers to engage in research for indebt knowledge in business education, information communication technology and general education
According to World Bank (2002), tertiary education is seen as the capstone of the traditional education pyramid. As the apex of educational structure, it is a critical pillar of human development which provides a life-long learning framework for training high-level skilled human capital resources in all spheres of life namely, teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanities, entrepreneurs, scientist and myriad of personnel(Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Imogie, 2005). Aduwa and Imogie further maintained that improved tertiary education is necessary for sustainable progress in basic education. With the advent of globalization and information revolution, education is expected to create intellectual capacity on which knowledge production and utilization depends on. It is also expected to play a key role in promoting life long learning practices that is necessary for updating people’s knowledge and skills. To achieve this, tertiary institutions need to change their instruction modes of operation and delivery by taking advantage of e-learning technologies, which is an integral part of information communication technology (ICT).
Government, particularly at the federal and state levels in conjunction with some non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have contributed towards the promotion and provision of information communication technology facilities and capacity building in some Nigerian tertiary institutions. However, a bit more is needed in this regard. The inclusion of information communication technology courses is compulsory in all courses in Nigerian tertiary institution and as a major feature in business education courses point to the fact that ICT and e-learning is a necessity and of great importance, if we are to achieve the millennium development goals of the UNESCO.
Despite the huge financial investment by government and non-governmental agencies on ICT, the slow pace of acquiring the needed state of the art facilities in the universities, polytechnics and colleges of education, but e-learning tools and technologies for business education service delivery is still unpopular, irrespective of the fact that the new wind of change calls for its utilization. Certain factors pose as challenges and constraints to the utilization of e-learning technologies are dearth of fund, irregular supply of electricity, high capital intensive nature of ICT facilities, dearth of qualified and insufficient human resources, traditional mentality of some teachers, and lack of dynamism to shift from old to new instructional delivery system – e-learning.
The focus of this research is on the availability and utilization of e-learning technologies for effective delivery in business education programme of tertiary institutions. If an improved tertiary institution is necessary for sustainable progress in intellectual capacity building in terms of knowledge and skills, business education as a field of study provides the opportunity for teaching and learning business attitudes, concepts, skills and knowledge for the world of work and self sustainability, while e-learning serves as the instructional electronic media through which business education programme is delivered. In this regard therefore, it is important to conduct an empirical investigation into the strategies for utilization of e-learning tools and technologies and ascertain its effectiveness in business education programme in tertiary institutions in the present dispensation of globalization in science, technology and economic development.