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ASSESSMENT OF PLANTAR ARCH INDEX AND PREVALENCE OF FLAT FEET AMONG RESIDENTS IN OVIA NORTHEAST L.G.A, EDO STATE

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ASSESSMENT OF PLANTAR ARCH INDEX AND PREVALENCE OF FLAT FEET AMONG RESIDENTS IN OVIA NORTHEAST L.G.A, EDO STATE

5,000.00 3,000.00

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ASSESSMENT OF PLANTAR ARCH INDEX AND PREVALENCE OF FLAT FEET AMONG RESIDENTS IN OVIA NORTHEAST L.G.A, EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the plantar arch index among residents in ovia northeast L.G.A and to determine the prevalence of pes planus. A total of 380 subjects comprising of 194 males and 186 females aged 16-35 years were used for the study. The dynamic footprints of the subjects were obtained using endorsing ink and plain duplicating paper. The plantar arch index was determined as the ratio of the mid arch width to the mid heel width from the foot prints. Descriptive statistics for each variable included mean and standard deviation(SD). Mean  2SD was regarded as normal but greater than that that was considered as pes planus. After results were analyzed, a total of 60 males and 53 females had pes planus. The overall prevalence of pes planus was 29.72% with a prevalence of 15.78% among males and 13.94% among females. Bilateral pes planuswas commoner among males 4(1.05%) than females 2(0.52%). The results showed that the prevalence of pes planus was higher(P<0.05) among males than females in our study. 0(0%)cases of Pes Cavus was reported in this research,74(19.47%) males were normal, they didn’t have Pes planus or Pes Cavus, 100(26.317%) were normal, they didn’t have Pes planus or Pes Cavus,

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There is a functional relationship that exists between the structure of the arch of the foot and the biomechanics of the lower limb. The arch of the foot provides an elastic, springy connection between the forefoot and hindfoot. This relationship ensures that most of the forces incurred during weight bearing can be dissipated before reaching the long bones of the leg and thigh.

The arch of the foot demonstrates two extremes of anatomical structural position—the high arch characterizes of the pes cavus and the flat arch the pes planus. Although three distinct arches function to support the foot, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) has been found to be the arch of clinical significance in both these disorders. Problems and mal-alignments originating specifically with the MLA ultimately affect the functioning of the muscles and joints of the ankle, knee, hip, and low back, all of which depend on the base of support provided by the MLA.

The prevalence of pes planus declines with age, being higher in children with ligament laxity and early shoe wearing which impairs longitudinal arch development (Hernandez et al., 2007). The lower limb, and particularly the foot, is amongst the most distinctive characteristics of human anatomy (Hernandez et al., 2007). Footprint of hominoids already demonstrated the existence of plantar arch 3.7 million years ago (Hernandez et al., 2007). The orthopaedic examination served to recognize disorders that are known to change feet consistency. The identification of congenital problems, particularly involving the feet; postural abnormalities of the spine, pelvis, hips. Knees Achilles Tendon shortening, and restraint to subtalar joint movements are essential for ruling out the possibility of secondary pes planus. (Hernandez et al., 2007). The medial longitudinal arch of the foot is of great importance because it helps protect the foot from injuries (Xiong et al., 2010). An important highly variable structure characteristics of the human foot is its medial and longitudinal arch, which provides necessary shock absorption for the foot during activities. Traditionally, feet are classified as being high, normal or low arched. A high arched foot is supposed to be at increased risk of injuries to the bony structures on the lateral aspect of the foot(oversupinated), where as a low arched foot can be at greater risk for soft tissue damage on the medial part of the foot(over pronated) (Xiong et al., 2010).

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