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Shorthand as a subject is a problem to many office technology students widely known. Many candidates do fall shorthand examination at various levels is also indisputable. But still it is realized that shorthand is an indispensable course in the area of Office Technology. To become an efficient secretary and not a typist, one must pass through the learning stages of shorthand as a course. This project work will be carried out on Causes  of failure in Shorthand on Office Technology Students. Various methods of gathering data will be used to arrive at acceptable findings that will present a fair representation of opinion.The population based on two hundred and sixty four (264) National; Diplomal (ND),Office Technology andmanagement student, Federal polytechnic Ede. For the purpose of collecting information.Variouse literatufres review were use consulted, also a well structured quetionnnaire was designed and administrated on the subject. Three research questionswere used and they are as follow Are the relevant book available for learning shorthand sufficient? (b)What are the natura problem of shorthand? (c) Are the teachers, student contributing in any way to this high rate of failure? The use of sample means method of analyze the three research questions provided the empirical basis n the discussion and presentation of the data 






Title page                                                                                                      i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                                    iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                        vi

Table of Content                                                                                         vi



  • Introduction 1

1.1      Background of study                                                                     1

1.2      Statement of the Problem                                                           2

1.3      Purpose of the study                                                                     3

1.4      Significance of the Study                                                             3

1.5      Scope of the Study                                                                                    3

1.6      Research Questions                                                                       3

1.7      Limitations of study                                                                                   3



  • Review of related literature 4

2.1      What is Shorthand                                                                         4

2.2      Historical perspective of shorthand                                          4

2.3      Cause of failure in shorthand                                                     5

2.4      Important of secretary in modern day office                                    10



  • Research Methodology 11

3.1      Introduction                                                                                                11

3.2      Population of study                                                                                   11

3.3      Sample and sampling techniques                                                          11

3.4      The research instrument used                                                   11

3.5      Administration of the research instrument                            11

3.6      Method of data analysis                                                               11



  • Presentation and analysis of data 12

4.1      Introduction                                                                                                12

4.2      Research questions                                                                                    13



  • Summary of findings, Conclusion, and Recommendations 18

5.1      Summary of findings                                                                     18

5.2      Summary                                                                                          19

5.3      Summary of interview had with some students                               19

5.4      Conclusion                                                                                       20

5.5      Recommendation                                                                          20

Reference                                                                                         23

Appendix                                                                                          24


















1.1      Introduction

In any organization, be it private or public, there is usually need for a secretary that is competent. A secretary is an assistant to executive who possess a mastery of office  skills and ability to assume responsibility without being directly supervised.

There are many responsibility expected of a good secretary but all there can not be effectively carried out without undergoing a very good and sound training in an higher institution of learning.

Some of the courses secretarial students usually undergo are: shorthand (100 WPM for ND and 120 WPM for HND), Typewriting (50 WPM for ND 60 WPM for HND) secretarial studies, office practice, word processing, English language, Economics, Citizenship Education etc of all these subjects, secretarial studies students always for shorthand and find the subject very difficult. They see it as a dog in the wheel of their progress.

Shorthand is a system of fast writing and recording information using a set of well-known abbreviation. It is an organized system of writing outlines as short as possible for the intention of achieving fast, accurate and vibration recording of information such as correspondence, reprint, transcribing and such things into readable language (usually English language).

According to Canning (1981), shorthand is “wholly symbolic and very largely phonetic form writing”

Shorthand, it seems safe to assumes, must have existed in one form or the other since the first learnt to write in any case, there is evidence to show that shorthand existed in the days of socratis.

According to Russon (1968), most historians date the beginning of shorthand to zenophon who used and ancient Greek system to write the memoirs of scrates. It was discovered that Marcus Tullus (born 103 BC) who was Cicero’s secretary invested the first Latin shorthand system, know as Tiro Tironance. Two put together the first shorthand dictionary. That age produced many shorthand writers. Among these were Julius Caesour, who used shorthand to write an account of his military complexness, emperor Augustus Caesar and Emperor Titus.

After that, many systems of shorthand arose all over the world. Some of them are Gregg system of shorthand, which was in 1887 by Mr. John Robert and Pitman system (otherwise known as phonograph), it was published in 1887 by sir Isaac Pitman. Gregg system has been out dated and even in many institutions, only Pitman shorthand New Era is being taught in many institution of learning.

Pitman shorthand was developed after the most excruciating study of English phonetics. Thus, the pitman system is a rapid way of writing the English language by other means. The system has been tested for so long and by so many expert writers and teachers of wide diversity of natural attitude and has won so high a reputation on the testing of time. Not only that, it remains the source of live hood for a source of inspiration to others in various sphere of life.

Through Isaac Pitman died in 1897 but his system of shorthand has gained world wide recognition because of the sound principles of the system and the spread of English language as a result of vast colonial empire of the British Government.


1.2      Statement of Problem

The essence for this study came to being principally to work out the effect of failure in shorthand on student. Therefore, the problems to be investigated are the degree of students attitude towards learning shorthand and systems the shorthand lecturers should adopt for lecturing.

  1. Lack of good command of English language make students fail shorthand.
  2. Students do not practice shorthand on their own, lack of encouragement.
  3. Shorthand student see shorthand as a difficult subject and uninterested.
  4. Students dislike the idea of giving the highest credit unit to shorthand because failing of it makes them dullards.
  5. The material used for shorthand in classroom is not enough such as space, chair and table.

1.3      Purpose of Study

The main is purpose of this study is to find out.

  1. To suggests possible solution or remedies to the problem
  2. The effects of mass failure in shorthand on students.
  3. To discover the contributing factor to large number of this failure.


1.4      Significance of Study

In essence, the investigation will definitely help the students in secretarial studies department to improve in shorthand. The consequence of this study will also make the subject easier and interesting among those students who is at opinion that subject is very tough.

This study will guide the student to acquire the skills in learning shorthand.