5,000.00 3,000.00





  • Background of the study

The library is a strong research base of any institution where age long information is preserved for diverse purposes. Nigeria is a country with different institutions and each of them has an academic library (Lawal 2007, p:5).The presence of the library makes it easy for any researcher to gather information necessary in the course of the research and for students to gather more knowledge. Due to how important the library is, the National Universities Commission (NUC) embarks on a routine check to ensure Nigerian libraries are well equipped for both the students and lecturers use. The library bearing its functions in mind is meant to provide adequate services to its users; though the reverse seems to be the case in Nigerian universities’ library as there are no new books on the shelves, dilapidated structures and very important materials are stolen from the library (Ojoade and Ochai, 2000).

However, funding for libraries in Nigeria has been of much concern to researchers. The limited resources cannot meet thehuman needs on the ground; and that is why when the Federal government allocates fund to the universities before such funds will be shared with the various divisions of the university, the library will be left out. As a result of this, most institutions still have outdated books/materials in their libraries, lecturers are not sponsored to embark on meaningful researches and even to attend seminars.

Due to the fact that funding is a major issue in maintaining the library, it now beholds on the librarians to source for other means to maintain the library as the government is not performing well to achieve this; and the truth still remains that funding drives the effectiveness of a library.

Meanwhile, in this 21st century, there is a need for the sophistication of information. With the advent of information and communication technology (ICT), there is much need to review the library system of Nigeria, in other to keep users up to date; as users are now very conscious of their environment that they need to be updated as time passes by (Etim (2004) cited in Okon 2005).

However, Nigerian libraries are seriously struggling to meet up with these current needs of the users as fund is posing a great challenge.

The current economic situation of the country has equally affected the funding as well as, the maintenance of Nigerian libraries as the cost of foreign books is on the increase; due to the scarcity of foreign exchange. The problem is severe bearing in mind that Federal institutions are funded by parent institutions through National universities commission (NUC) and by the Federal government. In the 80s, about 5% was allocated by the Federal government for libraries, but this allocation was increased in the mid 90s to about 10%, of which it was given directly to the Library Development Fund (LDF); though the bad news is that the Library Development Fund (LDF) has been scrapped out from the budget (Olanlokun and Adekanye, 2005 p: 145). Thus, each university decides on what to give to its library. When an assessment was carried out to ascertain if the said 10% is allocated to university libraries, it was discovered that many federal universities have not received the allocated fund, in the state university it is about who knows who in government to help fight in other to get the said allocation and while in the private university, it is the founders that determine what goes into the funding of the library.

It is, therefore, pertinent for academic libraries in Nigeria to engage in diverse means of generating revenue for the upkeep of the libraries, rather than depending on the government. An introspective look into internal means of generating revenue for the maintenance of the library will go a long way in achieving the purpose for which it was set up, and this study is meant to discover those ways.




  • Statement of the problem

When the life wire of any establishment is not pumped into any system, the progress of that system is forfeited. The library is suppose to be a strong and updated knowledge base for learning; but the absence of funds to keep it at what it is meant to be poses a serious problem. The government keeps allocating unseen funds for the maintenance of the libraries; funds that are never seen or end up being embezzled.

Another major problem associated with Nigeria academic library is, over-dependence of the institution on the government for survival. In this bid, the libraries have been left in poor states, shelves left empty due to stolen books and outdated books still in stock with no up to date books to support.

In addition, some equipment that would have assisted the librarians in the course of discharging their duties is neglected. Computers and some electronic devices like a photocopying machine that should serve as a means of revenue are abandoned with no sign of fixing or replacing them.

This study therefore examines other ways of generating income in Nigeria libraries rather than relying on the government.


  • Aims/ Objectives of the study

The major aim of this study is to carry out a comparative study on the way of generating income in Nigeria libraries (case studies of University of Uyo library and Uyo e-library).

Other specific objectives include:

  1. To determine other sources of revenue for maintaining Nigeria libraries.
  2. To determine the relationship between national development and libraries.
  3. To examine the challenges that can hamper other sources of revenue for the library from being active.
  4. To examine if changing Nigeria’s traditional libraries to e-libraries can be an effective tool for generating income for the library.
  5. To discover if there is need to have a special body that looks into the maintenance of libraries.


  • Research questions
  1. Are there other sources of revenue for maintaining Nigeria libraries?
  2. Is there a relationship between national development and libraries?
  3. Are there challenges that can hamper other sources of revenue for the library from being active?
  4. Will changing the Nigeria’s traditional libraries to e-libraries be an effective tool for generating income for the library?



  • Research Hypothesis

H0: There are no other sources of revenue for maintaining Nigeria libraries.

H1:There are other sources of revenue for maintaining Nigeria libraries.

Significance of the study/ Justification of the study

This study is meant to educate and inform librarians and the government on the need to fund Nigerian libraries in other to enhance learning.

It is meant to bring to the knowledge of librarians that there is need to take an introspective look into other means of generating revenues, rather than depending on the government.

In addition, a well equipped library has the tendency of attracting many users, who will thereby advertise the library.

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.

  • Scope/ Limitations of the study


This study is restricted to a comparative study on the way of generating income in Nigeria libraries; with case studies of University of Uyo library and Uyo e-library.

Limitations of study

  1. Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  2. Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


  • Definition of terms

Comparative study: This is the act of comparing two or more things with a view to discovering something about one or all of the things being compared.

Generating income:This refers to an investment or businessactivity that makes money.

 Library: Is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats

Librarian: ls a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming




Lawal, O.O. (2007). Standards for Library and Information Science Programmes

in Nigerian Universities. A lead Paper presented at the conference of the

National Association of Library and Information Science Educators (NALISE),

Nigeria held at Imo State University, Owerri. P. 5


Ojhoade, A.B. & Ochai, O. (2000). “Income General as Alternative Source of FundingLibraries in Nigeria: Myth or reality. Nigerian Libraries, Vol.34, No.1, pp.1-7


Etim, F.E. (2004). Resource sharing in the Digital Age: Prospects and problemsin African Universities. Library Philosophy and Practice, 9(1)


Okon, H.I. (2005). Effective Communication and Smooth Administration ofAcademic Libraries in the 21st Century: A new Paradigm in Nigeria. LibraryPhilosophy and Practice, 8(1)



Olanlokun, S. O. and Adekanye, E. A.(2005). “Collection development in unstable economy: a case study of the University of Lagos Library African Journal of Libraries, Archival and Information Science.Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 141