CONFLICT REPORTING IN NIGERIA
[A CASE STUDY OF PUNCH NEWSPAPER REPORTING JOS CRISIS]
This research work dwells specially and elaborately on conflict reporting in Nigeria. Nigeria being a heterogeneous society cannot avoid certain conflicts. This research work therefore strive to examine on how conflict is been reported in Nigeria, problems confronting the Nigerian press in conflict reporting and how to improve on conflict reporting in the country. This work also provides solutions to problems encountered by journalist while reporting conflicts in Nigeria. Recommendations are also made on how to improve on reporting conflicts in Nigeria.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|TABLE OF CONTENTS||vi|
|1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY||1|
|1.2||STATEMENT OF PROBLEM||3|
|1.4||OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY||3|
|1.5||SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY||4|
|1.6||SCOPE OF THE STUDY||4|
|2.1||CONCEPT OF THE MASS MEDIA||5|
|2.2||HISTORY OF THE MASS MEDIA||5|
|2.3||CAUSE OF THE CRISIS||7|
|2.4||HOW THE CRISIS BEGIN||8|
|2.5||OWNERSHIP OF JOS||14|
|2.6||INDIENSHIP OF JOS||16|
|2.7||CLASSIFICATION OF THE MASS MEDIA||17|
|2.8||FUNCTION OF THE MEDIA/PRESS||17|
|2.9.1 TYPES OF CONFLICT||21|
|2.9.2 WHAT HAS MEDIA GOT TO DO WITH IT||22|
|2.10 QUALITIES JOURNALIST MUST POSSES IN REPORTING|
|CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA||22|
|3.2||RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS||25|
|3.3||CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY POPULATION||25|
|3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE||25|
|3.6||RATE OF RETURN OF QUESTIONNAIRE||26|
|3.7||VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF STUDY INSTRUMENT||26|
|3.8||ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT||26|
|3.9||DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE||26|
|4.0||DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION||28|
|4.3||ANSWERS TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS||34|
|5.0||SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS||36|
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
A trend of violent conflicts spreading through Nigeria in recent years has intensified in the past months leaving hundreds of people dead and thousand displaced.
This research work therefore focuses on how the press should report such conflicts is inevitable in a plural society such as Nigerian with diverse socio-cultural identities, the potential of conflict is further heightened by inter-group suspicion and corrupt leadership at almost every strata of the society. Thus an otherwise simple incident such as a woman crossing through a congregational prayer as it happened in Jos in 1001 may precipitate a violent clash between potential opponents
It is clear that the Nigerian state is presently grapping with latent ethnic and regional at identifying the reportage of this conflict the extent of
Nigerian press education of the audience on conflicts, and how the Nigerian press has been able to proffer solutions to conflicts in the country.
In the last decade as a result of downtown in the nation’s economy, there has been a very high degree of human sufferings, anger, disillusionment, moral decay and high crime rate. Under this harsh living conditions he members of the society tends to be aggressive and violent prone this has result in conflicts like Aglumeri and Umemeri, Ife and
Modakeke, Ijaw-Itsekiri, the Kaduna sharia riot, the Kano religious crisis and the recent Jos crisis the Nigerian citizen often turns to violence as a
result of the state insensitivity to their needs as the case in the Nigerian delta crisis.
The Nigerian press still faces the problem of press freedom in the dissemination of information to the heterogeneous Nigeria society. However, the Nigerian press must take extra caption in reporting conflict situation; media practitioners must watch their use of language in the event of reporting any conflict situations.
Conflict are an essential ingredient in the mass media, the press strives on existing imagined or evolving conflicts. Conflicts provide the substance for the drama, action, suspense and human interest upon which the loyalty of the audience is hinged. As a result of this the press must be effective in presenting model and correlating parts of the society needs to be vigilant to prevent reporting conflicts in away to avoid escalation of the conflicts. The press plays some role in the resolution on of disputes. Thus
Nigerian press should strive even harder to improve on its performance in this area. Equally as important as balance in the resolution of conflicts are constructiveness and responsibility in press coverage. While the newspapers and the news magazines did a splendid job of reporting Nigerian conflicts responsibility 90% of the time they were able to accord the same responsibility treatment to non-Nigerian conflict only 65% of the tune, and this means that they need it work harder to improve on the quality of their coverage of non-Nigerian conflict in this regard.
This very low level of constructiveness in this coverage of conflict events in west African sub-region also demands a concerned effort to improve upon this rather poor performance. This effect is a challenge to the
Nigerian press to realize and criticize the contending parties in an editorial or commending. It is also very important to be able to proffer well – informed
and plausible suggestions to the resolution of the conflict coverage to
Nigerian conflict alone while the Nigerian newspaper and news magazines leave themselves open to their professional responsibility.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research work will concerned about evaluating the effect of Jos crisis in Nigeria and suggesting a possible solution. It will also aimed at revealing the problem confronted by the Nigerian mass media in reporting conflicts situation in Nigeria. A case study of Punch Newspaper would be our path to cover the crisis.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research work intends to provide answers to the following questions.
- To what extent was the Nigerian press impartial in reporting the Jos crisis?
- To what extent did the press adequately educate the audience on the causes and other issues relating to the Jos crisis?
- What prominence was given to the Jos crisis by the Nigerian press?
- Has the punch newspaper helped in providing solution that can lead to eventual resolution of the Jos crisis?
- In what ways can government providing solution to the Jos crisis and other issues in Nigeria?
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To reveals the various techniques used in reporting conflict to avoid fueling such conflict.
- To educate the audience on the causes of Jos Crisis and other issue in Nigeria.
3, To Suggest adequate resolution to the Jos Crisis.
- To Sensitize government on how to provide lasting solution to the various conflicts in Nigeria.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian society is heterogeneous with diverse, socio-cultural,
exhumed and religions background. With this composition, conflicts is inevitable this research is therefore very significant conflicts.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work intends to cover the reportage of conflicts by the punch newspaper in Nigerian society with a particular focus on the Jos crisis which occurred in November 1008 to February 1009. It also based on general perspective of people formed the effect of Jos crisis (1008 to 1009.
Problem that may be encountered in this research work are as follows:
- Financial Constraint: – every research work requires adequate financial flow for it completion. Money is very essential in a research work as it enables the researcher to get all necessary materials needed to investigate the phenomenon under study.
- Time:- time is another major constraint on the research work research work requires enough time to dig- out facts through investigative means.
- Limitation of Scope:- conflict is a global phenomenon therefore focusing of Nigeria in general and Jos crisis in particular is a limitation. However. Further researches may expand the scope of the study.