CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF NATIONAL BROADCASTING COMMISSION (NBC) IN CONTROLLING THE PERFORMANCE OF BROADCAST INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF NATIONAL
BROADCASTING COMMISSION (NBC) IN CONTROLLING
THE PERFORMANCE OF BROADCAST INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Table of content||vi|
|CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION)|
|1.1||Background of the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the problem||3|
|1.3||Objective of the study||4|
|1.5||Definition of terms||5|
|1.7||The significance to the study||6|
|1.7||Limitation of the study||6|
|2.1||Historical Background of the study||8|
|2.2||Self Regulation of Broadcast Industry||10|
|2.2||Watchdog Role of The NBC||11|
|2.8||Enforcement of the Code||17|
|2.9||Appraising NBC Act No 38 of 1992||20|
|2.10 Assessing the NBC||21|
|2.11 Applicable theories||24|
|2.12 The Social Responsibility Theory||24|
|2.13 Gate Keeping Theory||25|
|2.14 The Gate Keeper||25|
|2.15 Development Media Theory||26|
|2.16 Normative Theory||27|
|2.17 Balance Theory||27|
|CHAPTER THREE (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY)|
|3.1||Restatement of Research Questions||28|
|3.3||Characteristic of the Study population||28|
|3.6||Instrument for Data Collection||32|
|3.7||Reliability of the Instrument||32|
|3.8||Validation of the Instrument||32|
|3.9||Method Data analysis||33|
|3.10 Scope of Delimitation of the Study||33|
|4.0||Data analysis and Presentation of findings||34|
|4.2||Presentation of Findings||38|
|5.0||Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation||43|
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The human society we live in is that of law and ethics, control and regulations. In essence therefore, the legal maxim ‘ubi societas ibijus’ (where there is society, there is law) stresses this fact. Laws, standards, guidelines and rules promote ethics while ethical principles reinforce the pillar of the law (Okoro, 1998:174). Therefore, no organised society in the world can exist with it citizens carrying out their normal functions without rules and regulations. In the absence of law and order, there will be chaos and anarchy.
Communication, and particularly broadcasting, according to (Ibagere 1996: 93) is regarded as: An important aspect of national by which professional bodies established must regulate its standards of practice in order to sanitize its activities. This is usually by government or pressure groups. it must ensure that the broadcast industry operate within the confines of public morality which should be determined by self-imposed censorship effected by also a professional body.
Broadcasting, with its sensitive nature and a wider coverage area, is a very powerful organ of mass communication. It is also dependent on air waves-electromagnetic spectrum, which belongs to the public. Therefore, governments all over the world have shown diverse interests in broadcasting because of the existence of its vital ingredient- the airwaves (electro — magnetic spectrum) which is a natural resource. There is a universal acceptance that the airwaves formed within the air space above the territorial boundaries of any nation is a bonfires property of that country.
Therefore, often government and other designated agencies are charged with regulating the airwaves so as to ensure that they benefit the nation as a whole now and in the future.
Ume- Nwagbo. E. (1995 : 15) citing (Head 1976:5) affirms that: No country can afford to leave so powerful and persuasive an avenue of public communication completely unregulated without shaping it to some degree in accord with public policy and national interest.
Again, broadcasting which invites legal controls because of the need to prevent interference and also for the efficient use of the spectrum for the public interest and to manage its potential for social control, is regulated the world over usually by an agency of government. In this case, it is the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) (Ogor, 2002 :78).
Broadcasting, due to its delicate, spontaneous and ubiquitous nature, demonstrates awesome power in shaping society. It has been described in varied terms.
In economic terms, broadcasting serves as a compass that helps in indicating the fluctuations in stocks, shares and other indices. In social life, it is a veritable instrument for shaping social and family values across generations. In politics’, it remains a sine qua non In Conveying messages to and from voters and a vehicle of agenda legitimization, sometimes of outright campaign by nations.
Frequencies which all the broadcast stations use to convey messages are, therefore, closely and scrupulously monitored and regulated in the public interest. Bako, 2002: 2). Among the different media of mass communication, the broadcast media have always been a source of worry to governments. One major reason for government control of broadcasting is
based on the fact that the air waves (electromagnetic spectrum) are a scarce public resource. It is argued that this resource should be controlled and allocated by the government in the way best suitable for serving the public good (Okunna, 1999: 77). Odunewu, (1996: 285), while discussing the need for the press to embrace self-regulation, cited from the works of legendary.
Mahatma Gandhi of India that “the Press is a great power but, just as an unchained torrent submerges the whole countryside and devastate crops, an uncontrolled broadcast serves but to destroy. It can be more profitable when control is exercised from within the profession”.
Furthermore, for the broadcast media to remain relevant in the lives of Nigerians, it needs to be regulated in one way or the other for the benefit of the generality of the public. Ugboajah (1987: 155) contends that public interest in broadcasting is not a myth and cited Dennis (1974) in support of position that “Government regulation of certain communication activities affected with public interest ‘is actually in public interest”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The essence of establishing the NBC was to monitor and bring erring stations under control. However, it has been observed according to (Odiaka, 2001: 13; Saidu, 2002: 36; King, 2003: 19, and Ogor, 2003: 16) that many stations violate the Broadcast Code because there has not been any effective application of sanctions on stations contravening the provisions of the Code.
Therefore, as the main regulator of the broadcast industry, has the NBC been able to ensure that the broadcast stations adhere strictly to the NBC Code and is the Code, which is the only instrument, used in measuring performance of
the various broadcast stations, an effective and efficient means of measuring performance?
The in-depth analysis of these questions as vel1 as the attempt to seek answers to them form the problem of this study.