DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM
A computerized accounting information system collects, stores and processes financial/economic data for decision making purposes. The study examines the manual (existing system) of book-keeping and accounting in-order to reproduce a system exacly like the manual accounting system, but in a computerized/automated manner.
Confronted with the problem of in-adequate book-keeping practices of most small and medium enterprises in Nigeria, the researcher designed a computerized system that is convenient, accurate and user friendly for SME operators to utilize.
The system is built using PHP computer language, and can run on a virtual server for multiple users. The software encompasses all standard accounting practices/methodologies ranging from daily journal postings/sales, purchases, inventories, expenses etc. to the financial statements such as statement of comprehensive income, statement of financial position and the traditional cash book.
Other features making the application a unique one, is the ability of the application to measure financial performance of the enterprise as well as budgetary controls and bank reconciliation functions.
KEY WORDS: Account, PHP, Profit, SMEs, Financial Statement, IFRS.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Accounting takes an important role in operating an organization. Every business must keep track of financial information that relates to its business activities. It also has numerous processes; some simple, others complex and burdensome. But as the business grows, acquires new customers, enters new markets and keeps pace with constant changes in information technology, companies need to maintain highly accurate and up-to-date accounting, inventory and statutory records (Igbaria et al, 1997). With a substantial increase in the volume of accounting transactions and increase in exposure of information to errors due to complexity of these accounting systems, there was a need for a system which could store and process accounting data with increased speed, storage, and processing capacity. This led to the development and introduction of accounting software packages (Igbaria et al, 1997).
Accounting software describes a type of application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the organization using it, may be purchased from a third party, or may be a combination of a third-party application software package with local modifications (Wikipedia, 2016). Accounting software may be on-line based, accessed anywhere at anytime with any device which is Internet enabled, or may be desktop based. It varies greatly in its complexity and cost. The market has been undergoing considerable consolidation since the mid-1990s, with many suppliers ceasing to trade or being bought by larger groups.
In many cases, implementation of accounting software (i.e. the installation and configuration of the system at the client) can be a bigger consideration than the actual software chosen when it comes down to the total cost of ownership for the business. Most midmarket and larger applications are sold exclusively through resellers, developers and consultants. Those organizations generally pass on a license fee to the software vendor and then charge the client for installation, customization and support services. Clients can normally count on paying roughly 50-200% of the price of the software in implementation and consulting fees.
With the advent of faster computers and internet connections, accounting software companies have been able to create accounting software paid for on a monthly recurring charge instead of a larger upfront license fee. The rate of adoption of this new business model has increased steadily to the point where legacy players have been forced to come out with their own online versions. Cloud accounting software seems to more rapidly adopted by areas where prices are generally higher due to higher shipping costs and price discrimination practices (Chau, 2001).
The use of accounting software will shorten the dataprocessing time that usually takes a longer time if it is donemanually and processing can be accelerated significantlyand with a better level of accuracy. Americaninstitute ofCertified Public Accountant(AICPA)has created a newcertificate of Certified Information Technology Professional(CITP).TheCITPis certification for the accountants whohave a broad knowledge in the field of technology andunderstand how the information system technology can beused in a variety of organizations. This reflects theAICPArecognition of the importance of information technologysystems in relation to accounting (Agarwal & Prasad, 1997).
An accounting student is required to be able tofollow information technology developments becauseby understanding and knowing the technology progressand development, students can implement the accountinginformation system technology, which is expected tomake the student more competent, especially in the fieldof information systems technology. Accounting studentsare required to become competent accountants, forexample, in the field of information systems technology.This is supported by the number of companies thatexpect accounting graduates to have a good knowledgeof accounting, which is supported with specific expertise(soft skills) in the information systems technology field,such as accounting software.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Accounting Software is a class of computer programs that perform accounting operations. It is one of the database-oriented applications wherein the transaction data is stored in well- organized database. The user operates on such database using the required interface and also takes the required reports by suitable transformations of stored data into information. Therefore, the fundamentals of accounting information system include all the basic requirements of any database-oriented application in computers. It helps simplify, integrate, and streamline all the business processes, cost-effectively and easily and helps presents the true picture of all the business undertakings to users of financial reports. The advancements in information technology have eventually led to the introduction of Accounting Information Systems to help produce relevant and faithful representative financial reports for both management and external users for decision making. Accounting information system tends to involve dedicated accounting software and digital spreadsheets to keep track of a business or client’s financial transactions. It is a beneficial use of current technological advances. Not only has it revolutionized thetraditional paper methods of accounting, but it has also created new types of accounting applications for business. Companies now create entire accounting information systems that integrate all business operations, including external suppliers and vendors. Accounting information systems have replaced manual-based accounting in virtually all businesses and organizations, providing accountants, managers, employees andstockholder’s access to vital accounting information at the touch of a button.
Accounting information systems automate the accounting process–improving efficiency and cutting down costs. And it tends to be more accurate, faster to use, and less subject to error than its manual counterpart. In today’s computerized, interconnected, global business environment, Accounting Information Systems became the ‘engine of growth’ in businessorganizations. It therefore involves the computerization of accounting information systems which is established in order to facilitate decision making. These are associated with a numbers of benefits like speed of carrying out routine transactions, timeliness, quick analysis, accuracy and reporting.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of the study is to design and implement an accounting information system that will keep track of all financial transactions carried out in an organization.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The results from this study will educate on the impact of accounting software on the processing and management of accounting information system.
- This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.5 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the benefits and the disadvantages of accounting software on the processing of accounting information system.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
Agarwal, R. & Prasad, J. 1997.The role of innovation characteristics and perceived voluntariness in the acceptance of information technologies. DecisionSciences 28(3): 557-582.
Chau, P.Y.K. 2001.Influence of computer attitude and self-efficacy on it usage behavior. Journal of End User Computing 13(1): 26-33.
Igbaria, M., Zinatelli, N., Cragg, P. & Cavaye, L.M. 1997. Personal computing acceptance factors in small firms: A structural equation model. MIS Quarterly 21(3): 279-302.