Disposal Alternative For Solid Waste
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Solid waste is the process of collecting, storing, treatment and disposal of solid wastes in such a way that they are harmless to humans, plants, animals, the ecology and the environment generally.
The unhealthy disposal of solid waste is on the greatest challenges facing developing countries (Kotoworola, 2007). It is a problem recognized by all nations at the 1992 conference on Environment and Development, and regarded as a major barrier in the path towards sustainability (UNCED, 1992). Hence, individual/group awareness and attitude towards solid waste generation and disposal is critical in the effort to combat the current solid waste management challenges in Nigeria.
The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the fact that the rate of collection and evaluation perpetually lag behind the role of generation which makes solid waste, accumulation a major source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities. Solid waste management therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection and final disposal (Omuta, 1988). Sada (1984) has observed that in 1980, on the average, a balance of 100 metric tons of solid waste are pilled up daily in Benin City. This is because while about 350 metric tons of (Geraldu, 1995). The poor state of solid management in Nigeria is caused by inadequate facilities, poor funding, and poor implementation of policies as well as wrong lifestyle (consumption pattern). According to Egunjobi (1986), the problem of effective solid waste management has to do with poor social services delivery effects which cause unnecessary delays in solid waste clearance. It is either broken down machinery, non-maintenance of dumpsters, poorly maintained urban streets and roads and irregularities in the designation of sanitary landfill sites. Nigerians seem to be permanently accustomed to dirt. Evidence of this can be seen every day by way of indiscriminate discharge of garbage into drains and at times on the highways. Studies have revealed that household account for about half of the solid wastes generated, that is, by weight in the third world cities, it has also been noted that solid waste management has received considerable attention not only in Rivers state but Nigerian generally.
Despite this laudable attention, collection, disposal processing, treatment, recycling and utilization have defiled solution as a result of attitude of some Nigerians. It is believed that the waste disposal habit of the people, corruption, work attitude, inadequate planes and equipment among other are the major factors militating against effective solid waste management in Port-Harcourt City. The major effects of poor solid waste management in Nigeria include: blocked drains, flooding, erosion traffic congestion soil pollution, air pollution, health problems. Unaesthetic dump sites and loss of community pride. Solid wastes are generated daily, the maximum rate of evaluation achievable was only 250 metric tons daily. Uchegbu (1988) remarked that big cities like Enugu, Lagos, and Kano etc. in Nigeria produced on the average 46kg of solid waste per person, per day. As living standards rise, people consumer more and generate more waste. Right from 1990s Enugu city has metamorphosed into a resort center because of its congenial living environment which attracts an influx of weekend leisure seekers into the city. These leisure seekers merely come into Enugu to relax consume and enjoy themselves every weekend, thus contributing enormously to weekly waste generation in Enugu City. Atuegbu (2007) reports that between 500 and 850 metric tons of waste generation is so high than in one night, a refuse dump site that was cleared the previous day following morning, thus creating the erroneous impression that it was never clear before. The scenario is the same at Asata, Fuel and coal coup areas of Enugu metropolis.
Unfortunately, many people in African countries including Nigeria, until recently, regard the concern for effective strategies for managing urban solid waste as a less important issue which may distract attention from the most urgent and serious problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation with waste generation is an inevitable price of development/Salau, 1992: Chukwu, 2010).
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
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