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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Dennettia tripetala ON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.

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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Dennettia tripetala ON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.

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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Dennettia tripetala ON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page ……………………………………………….……………………i

Certification………………………………………………………………….ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………iv

Table of contents………………………………………..……………………v

Abstract……………………………………………………………………….vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………… 1

1.1LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………..…………………..3

1.1.0 THE LIVER……………………………………………………………..3

1.1.0.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER …………………..………………….4

1.1.0.2 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF HEPATOTOXICANTS…………….5

1.2 KIDNEY…………………………………………………………………..7

1.2.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY………………………………………7

1.2.1.0 EXCRETION OF WASTES…………………………………………..8

1.2.1.1 REABSORPTION OF VITAL NUTRIENTS……..………………….8

1.2.1.2 ACID-BASE HOMEOSTASIS……………………………………….9

1.2.1.3 OSMOLALITY REGULATION………………………………….….9

1.2.1.4 BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION…………………….……….10

1.2.1.5 HORMONE SECRETION…………………………………………..11

1.3 HEPATOTOXICITY………………………………………..…………..12

1.3.1 SYMPTOMS OF HEPATOTOXICITY…………………..…………..13

1.3.1.0 CLINICAL MANIFESTATION…………………………………….13

1.3.1.1 PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATION…………………….………14

1.4 CARBONTETRACHLORIDE………………………………………….14

1.5 OXIDATIVE STRESS…………………………………………………..18

1.5.1 EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON DNA……………………….18

1.5.2 EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON LIPIDS…………………….20

1.5.3 EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON PROTEINS………..……….20

1.5.4 LIPID PEROXIDATION……………………………………..………..21

1.6 ANTIOXIDANTS………………………………………………………..25

1.6.0 ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS………………………………………25

1.6.0.1 SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE………………………………………..25

1.6.0.2 CATALASE………………………………………………………….26

1.6.0.3 GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE……………………………………27

1.6.1 NON ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS……………………………….29

1.6.1.1 VITAMIN C…………………………………………………………..29

1.6.1.2 VITAMIN E………………………………………………………….29

1.6.1.3 GLUTATHIONE…………………………………………………….30

1.7 LIVER FUNCTIONTESTS………………………………………………30

1.8 LIPID PROFILE…………………………………………………………33

1.9 DENNETTIA TRIPETALA………………………………………………………34

JUSTIFICATION…………………………………………………………….44

AIM AND OBJECTIVE……………………………………………………..44

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………..45

  • MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………………45

2.1 MATERIALS…………………………………………………………..…45

2.2 APPARATUS……………………………………………………………46

2.3 METHODS ………………………………………………………………47

2.3.1 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS………………………………………….47

2.3.2 COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION OF PLANTMATERIALS…….47

2.4 ANIMAL FEEDING EXPERIMENT……………………………………48

2.5 CATALASE………………………………………………………………49

2.6 SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE……………………………………………50

2.7 MALONDIALDEHYDE………………………………………………….51

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULTS……………………………………………………….53

CHAPTER FOUR

DISCUSSION……………………………………………………….58

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………66

REFERENCES………………………………………………………..67

APPENDIX I……………………………………………………….. 75

APPENDIX II…………………………………………………………76

APPENDIX III………………………………………………………77

APPENDIX IV………………………………………………………79

APPENDIX V……………………………………………………..…81

APPENDIX VI………………………………………………………84

APPENDIX VII………………………………………………………89

 

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