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EFFECT OF GAS FLARING INTO THE ECOSYSTEM

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EFFECT OF GAS FLARING INTO THE ECOSYSTEM

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EFFECT OF GAS FLARING INTO THE ECOSYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.2    Statement of General Problem   –        –        –        –

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Hypothesis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –        –        –

1.6    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.2    Theoretical Framework      –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.3. Green House Gas Emissions      –       –        –        –        –        –

2.4. Power Plants     –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        –

2.5. What is the Term Gas Flaring?    –     –        –        –        –        –

2.6. Origin of Gas Flaring         –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7. Culprits in Niger Delta Oil, Flares and Power Plants     –   –

2.8. Environmental and health impacts of Gas Flaring/Power Plants Emissions                –        –        –        –        –        –       –          –        –        –

2.9 Barriers to Gas Flaring Utilization      –        –        –        –        –

2.9. Environmental Management Theories    – –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.4    Population of Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.5    Sample size and Sampling Techniques        –        –        –        –        –

3.6    Instrument for Data Collection   –        –        –        –        –        –

3.7    Validity of the Instrument –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument       –        –        –        –        –        –

3.9    Method of Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.10  Method of Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        –        –        –

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents     –        –        –        –        –

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.5    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.6    Discussion of Findings        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the study

Nigeria flares more natural gas associated with oil extraction than any other country, with estimates suggesting that of the 3.5 billion cubic feet (100,000,000 m³) of associated gas produced annually, 2.5 billion cubic feet (70,000,000 m³), or about 70%, is wasted by flaring. This equals about 25% of the UK’s total natural gas consumption and is the equivalent to 40% of Africa’s gas consumption in 2001. Statistical data associated with gas flaring are notoriously unreliable, but Nigeria may waste US$2 billion per year by flaring associated gas.

Flaring is done as it is costly to separate commercially viable associated gas from the oil. Companies operating in Nigeria also harvest natural gas for commercial purposes but prefer to extract it from deposits where it is found in isolation as non-associated gas. Thus associated gas is burned off to decrease costs.

Gas flaring is generally discouraged as it releases toxic components into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. In Western Europe 99% of associated gas is used or re-injected into the ground. Gas flaring in Nigeria began simultaneously with oil extraction in the 1960s by Shell. Alternatives to flaring are gas re-injection or to store it for use as an energy source. If properly stored, the gas could be used for community projects.

Gas flaring releases of large amount of methane, which has a high global warming potential. The methane is accompanied by the other major greenhouse gascarbon dioxide, of which Nigeria was estimated to have emitted more than 34.38 million metric tons in 2002, accounting for about 50% of all industrial emissions in the country and 30% of the total CO2 emissions. While flaring in the west has been minimized, in Nigeria it has grown proportionally with oil production.

The international community, the Nigerian government, and the oil corporations seem in agreement that gas flaring needs to be curtailed. Efforts to do so, however, have been limited although flaring has been declared illegal since 1984 under section 3 of the “Associated Gas Reinjection Act” of Nigeria.

While OPEC and Shell, the biggest flares of natural gas in Nigeria, alike claim that only 50% of all associated gas is burnt off via flaring, these data are contested. The World Bank reported in 2004 that, “Nigeria currently flares 75% of the gas it produces”.

Gas flares have potentially harmful effects on the health and livelihood of nearby communities, as they release poisonous chemicals including nitrogen dioxidessulphurdioxide,volatile organic compounds like benzenetoluenexylene and hydrogen sulfide, as well as carcinogens like benzapyrene and dioxins. Humans exposed to such substances can suffer from respiratory problems. These chemicals can aggravate asthma, cause breathing difficulties and pain, as well as chronic bronchitisBenzene, known to be emitted from gas flares in undocumented quantities, is well recognized as a cause for leukemia and other blood-related diseases. A study done by Climate Justice estimates that exposure to benzene would result in eight new cases of cancer yearly in Bayelsa State alone.

Gas flares are often close to communities and regularly lack fencing or protections for villagers who risk working near their heat. Many communities claim that nearby flares causeacid rain which corrodes their homes and other structures, many of which have zinc-based roofing. Some people resort to using asbestos-based material, which is stronger in repelling acid rain deterioration. Unfortunately, this contributes to their declining health and the health of their environment. Asbestos exposure increases the risk of forminglung cancerpleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and asbestosis.

Whether or not flares contribute to acid rain is debatable, as some independent studies conducted have found that the sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide content of most flares was insufficient to establish a link between flaring and acid rain. Other studies from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) report that gas flaring is “a major contributor to air pollution and acid rain.”

Older flares are rarely relocated away from villages and are known to coat the land and communities with soot and to damage adjacent vegetation. Almost no vegetation can grow in the area directly surrounding the flares due to their heat.

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