EFFECT OF HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING AND URBAN ECOLOGY IN LAGOS STATE
EFFECT OF HAZARDOUS METROPOLIS FLOODING AND URBAN ECOLOGY IN LAGOS STATE
Background to study
The complexity of anthropogenic activities of man without adequate attention to geological structure of most cities of developed and developing nations has undoubtedly contributed to reoccurrence of disaster and consequently poses threat to environmental sustainability in most of these nations (Oludare et al., 2012). This irrefutably has led or accumulated to unresolved challenges. Among the unresolved challenges being faced are vicious flood incidences experienced in the last four decades. The occurrence is stern in third world countries where there is intensity in land use, haphazard development, and unprecedented urbanization among others. According to Adeyinka et al. (2008, p. 1) “Most of these cities are also characterized by uncontrolled development , substandard and inadequate housing, poor infrastructure provision and development, poor planning process and administration, weak urban governance, poor land use structure resulting to slum…’’. These plethora of problems are bedeviling cities of third world countries and Nigeria in particular.
Consequently, there has been unprecedented occurrence of floods and its associated negativities in most of the urban centers of developing countries (Montoya Morales, 2002). For instance, in Nigeria, reports have shown that devastating flood disaster had occurred in Ibadan (1985, 1987, 1990, and 2011), Osogbo (1992, 1996, 2002, and 2010), Yobe (2000), Akure (1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) and the coastal cities of Lagos, Ogun, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others (Olaniran, 1983). This claimed many lives and properties worth millions of Naira.
According to Okechuckwu (2008 p. 272); “the incursion of unplanned and uncontrolled development into urban infrastructure facilities, violate the major objectives of physical planning and consequently result into misuse of land thereby creating disorderly arrangement of urban landscape and the occurrence flood that is mostly evident in cities of third world countries”. Arising from these incongruous and haphazard developments in cities of third world cities, the occurrence of flood, particularly in Lagos, has been known to be paramount to some areas or local government in the state.
According to Oyebande (1990) water will always find its way if not well channelized. Its choice route often poses problems to man by tampering with his physical environment, health and products of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization. This has created a lot of social and economic cost on the environment and the citizenry. Few among these social and economic impacts on the environment are: outbreak of health diseases, infrastructure failure, mental health effects, building collapse, destruction of agricultural farmland and products.
Flood has been reported as a major and devastating problem in some sectors of the economy (Petak and Atkisson, 1982). Its effects are very severe to virtually all forms of land use. The severity of its impact is also reflected on the rate of development of most nations that experience such. Thus if adequate attention in terms of preventive measures are not put in place towards controlling its sporadic occurrence and its associated impacts particularly during rainy season, its incidence can turn a developed nation back into a developing nation.
Statement of the Problem
Residents of Lagos are known for their social life. In very recent times Lagos has been having issues of flooding despite the fact that it has several underground drainage network. Urban flash flood associated with torrential rainfall is the major type of flood in Lagos. It has impacted negatively on the people by disrupting their social life, on farm activities, free movement of people, goods and services. The effects of flooding in some parts of Lagos reflect in the submerging of buildings, farmlands and roads, this has implication on household well being.
Akintola, (2006) has reported cases of Flood in lagos state in which gullies were created, farmlands destroyed and people rendered homeless. With the increasing number of urban dwellers, the number of people at risk or vulnerable to flood hazard in Lagos is increasing such that it has been identified as a serious threat to sustainable development of Lagos (Umunakwe, 1999).
However most papers reviewed focuses on the risk assessment and and management of flooding in some urban areas. Alao (2009) has reported that the high amount of sediment yield in a river is directly related to the amount, duration and intensity of rainfall, as well as stream discharge, which often increases the river water level and finally causes flooding in Ilorin. Evans, et al, (2004) Considered six combination of river water level, in London to produce a flood hazard map of the area showing the spatial distribution of different levels of flood risk. Of all the papers reviewed, little attention is paid to thoroughly investigate human ecology as a causative to flooding and the actual effect of on residents of these areas. These studies do not have quick glance maps of environmental indices that can enable one have a vivid impression about the situation on ground. Oludare et al., (2012), Olajuyigbe, et al. (2012) and olabisi (2012) made a qualitative assessment of flood hazard in Nigeria but these papers did not to talk of describing how the people perceive of flood. Research on flood risk and vulnerability should have a people centered approach because of the need to address the issue of safety resulting from flood risk (Ibeh 2009).
Objective of the study
The broad objective of the study is to determine the effect of hazardous metropolis flooding and urban ecology in Lagos state. Specifically the study would:
- Determine the likely causes of flood in the selected study area
- Examine the Availability and condition of drainage system selected study area
- Determine if man’s activities induces flood in the selected study area
- Determine the Effects of flood incidence in the selected study area
The research questions to guide this study will be:
- What are the likely causes of flood in the selected study area?
- What is the condition of drainage system selected study area?
- Does the activities of man induce flood in the selected study area?
- What is the Effects of flood incidence in the selected study area?
Significance of the study
The disaster profile of Lagos and environ is dominated by flood events which are associated with property damage, interruption of movement of people and that of economic activities, which invariably retard development. This study is important as it will suggest disaster reduction related activities targeted at safety and sustainability of human lives and property. Also it would serve as a guide to government in the allocation of space for developmental activities, management and prevention of flood.
Scope of the study
The study would examine the effect of hazardous metropolis flooding and urban ecology in Lagos state. The study is further delimited to areas with cases of flooding in lagos state such as Ogba ,Oshodi, Ketu, Banana Island, Surulere ,Ayob, Aboru In Ipaja Ojodu.
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