EFFECT OF NON-MONETARY INCENTIVES ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
EFFECT OF NON-MONETARY INCENTIVES ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page iv
Dedication page v
Table of Content vii
- Background to the Study 1
- Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 5
1.7 Definition of key Term 6
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Conceptual Framework 8
2.2.1 The Concept of Financial and Non Financial Incentives 8
2.2.2 Concept of Employee Performance 11
2.2.3 Concept of Performance Incentives in Workplace 12
2.2.4 The Nexus between Incentives and Productivity 13
2.3 Theoretical Framework 16
2.3.1 The Evolution of Motivational Concepts 17
2.3.2 Process Theories of Motivation 24
2.3.3 Need Theories 29
2.3.4 Abraham Maslow Theory 29
2.3.5 Murray’s Manifest Needs Theory 33
2.3.6 Herzberg, and his Two-Factory Theory 36
2.3.7 Evaluation of the Motivational Theories Reviewed 39
2.4 Empirical Literature 40
2.4.1 The Effect of Financial and Non Financial Incentive to the Employee Performance 40
2.4.2 Impact of Incentive on Employee’s Motivation 54
2.5 Summary 58
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 Population and Sample Size of the Study 60
3.3 Source of Data Collection 61
3.4 Method of Data Collection 61
3.5 Method of Data Analysis 62
3.6 Summary 62
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Analysis of Respondent’s Demographic Variables 63
4.3 Data Analysis 66
4.4 Summary of Findings 73
4.5 Discussion of Findings 74
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 76
5.2 Conclusion 77
5.3 Recommendations 77
Appendix I 82
Appendix II 83
The study examines the effect of financial incentives on staff productivity in Niyya foods Kaduna. The research question that guided the study were: Is Niyya Food remuneration based on incentive scheme? What kind of financial incentive does Niyya Food give to its works and what are the effect on what workers? What kind of non financial incentives does Niyya Food use to boost workers productivity? What are the constraints militating against Niyya Food incentive schemes and how can it be overcome?A survey method was used for this study. The population consisted of all Staff of Niyya Food Kaduna. Out of 158 persons, a sample size of 70 was drawn from the total population using the stratified random sampling technique. A questionnaire developed by the researcher based on likert 5-point scale was used for the study. Mean scores was used to analyse the data based on the research questions. The research result shows that Niyya Food incentive scheme does not enhance workers performance because, it does not take into cognizance in it remuneration and do not even evaluate or appraisal workers performance.It was recommended that Other non financial incentives like lectures, seminar, symposium as well as Recreational facilities, such as club with sporting facilities, entry bar and other recreational facility that would help staff unwind after work should be designed and adopted. This will facilitate efficiency and increase productivity in Niyya Food.
- Background to the Study
All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve high level of productivity through staff motivation using the right kind of incentive. Most organizations in the past have been using financial incentives but their workers are still agitating for increment in salaries. Consequently the effect of non financial incentive becomes a burning issue in human resource management (Okoh, 2008).
The issue of adequate motivation and consequently workers productivity is a product of a person’s set up of needs, goals, drive and experience. By implication, this means that factors which govern motivation, job satisfaction, workers productivity and attitude to work differ from one society to another.
However, the entire issue of the implication of adequate motivation on workers productivity is embedded in the various theories of motivation.
People are motivated by various factors at different times, according to
Wilkinson et al, the first factor is the combination of the individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work situations with various expectations.
People work together in large organisations like bank, factory where they are expected to follow orders, which they may not approve of. In addition, they may have to obey instruction from supervisors they had no hand in selecting. This is the type of situation where the worker might have no opportunity for self-expression. The basic question that now arises, relates to how to create a situation in which workers can satisfy their individual needs while working towards organisational goals. How can workers in corporate organisation in Nigeria who’s workers feel that their salaries are low when compared with their contemporaries in other organisation?
As such a lot of theoretical concept, principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges/ but most scholars suggest that more conceptual and empirical work is required to show the link between financial and non financial incentive and staff productivity is still vague but some studies have documented in their work that financial incentive is readily perceived as having a high instrumental value that makes putting forth extra effort worthwhile and its has a long term effect in terms of labour turnover rate because of comparative value for alternative employment while non financial incentive has less initial impact as the pragmatics of financial gain, they seem to have a steady, sustainable impact(Egbe,2008).
Despite the growing body of literature and empirical study on the effect of non financial incentive on workers productivity, the subject matter still remains complex. Hence, the need to undertake a survey on the effect of non monetary incentives on staff productivity in Niyya food and drinks company Ltd Kaduna.
- Statement of the Problem
Most organizations in Nigeria are constraint with the problem of using non performance based element like salaries to compensate it staff as against performance-related pay structure which has hamper productivity because it does not make worker put in extra effort in their work. This is so because their compensation is not based on incentive schemes that elicit additional effort of workers sequel to unfriendly government legislation on wages clause and bureaucratic inefficiency. Hence the need for the research to examine the effect of non monetary incentive on employee productivity in Niyya Food and drinks Ltd Kaduna.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of non monetary incentive on staff of Niyya food and drinks Kaduna. Other Specific objectives are to:
- Assess whether staff remuneration is based on incentive schemes that motivate them.
- Examine all financial incentives given to staff and their effect on worker productivity.
- Identify non financial incentives used in boosting staff productivity.
- Evaluate out the constraints militating against incentive scheme Niyya Food and drinks and make recommendations to the identified problems.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study brings to light the effect of non monetary incentives on staff performance in organization. The study may therefore be beneficial to the organization understudy in area of policy formulations as regard staff incentive schemes and remuneration.
To education, the study may contribute to already existing knowledge on the effect of financial and non financial incentives on workers’ performance.
Finally, to those in academics and human resource researches, the study may serve as a springboard for further investigations.
1.5 Research Questions
This study provide answers to the following research questions:
- Is Niyya Food and drinks limited’s remuneration based on incentive scheme that motivate staff performance?
- What kind of financial incentive do Niyya food and drinks give to its workers and what are their effect on workers productivity?
- What kind of non financial incentive do Niyya food and drinks use to boost workers productivity?
- What are the constraints militating against Niyya Food and drinks incentive scheme and how can these constraints be overcome?
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covers an empirical investigation of the effect of non monetary motivation on staff productivity in Niyya Food and drinks. The main scope and time frame for this investigation covers Niyya Food and drinks incentive schemes from 2006-2011.