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LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

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LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                    ii

Approval                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgements                                                                        v

Table of Contents                                                                            vii

Table of Cases                                                                                 x

Table of Statutes                                                                              xii

Table of Abbreviation                                                                    xiii

Abstract                                                                                           xiv

 

CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction                                                                           1

1.1     Definition of Environment                                                   8

1.2     Pollution                                                                                10

1.3     Types of Pollution and Sources                                            12

1.3.1  Water Pollution and Sources                                                         12

1.3.2  Noise Pollution and Sources                                                          15

1.3.3  Air Pollution and Sources                                                    17

1.3.4  Land Pollution and Sources                                                 19

 

 

CHAPTER TWO:        THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

 

  • Common Law 21
  • The 1999 Constitution 26
  • National Policy on Environment 31
  • The Criminal Code 31
  • Oil in Navigable Waters Act 32
  • Oil Terminal Due Act                              34
  • Associated Gas Re-Injection Act 35
  • The Petroleum Act 36
  • Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations 37
  • Mineral Oil Safety Regulations 39
  • The Environmental Impact Assessment Act 39
  • The Harmful Waste (Special Criminal Provisions) Act 41
  • The Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act 42
  • States Pollution Control Laws 43
  • International Conventions Adopted by Nigeria in

Regulating Pollution                                                             43

 

CHAPTER THREE:    THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

 

  • Federal Institutional Framework 45
    • National Environmental Standards Regulations

Enforcement Agency                                                             45

 

  • The Police 51
  • The Federal High Court 52
  • State Environmental Protection Agencies 56
  • Local Government Level 58
  • Individual/Private Enforcement 59

 

CHAPTER FOUR:      ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA

 

  • Legal Framework – Analysis 61
  • Institutional Framework – Analysis 79

 

CHAPTER FIVE:    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

  • Conclusion 81
  • Recommendations 87

Bibliography                                                                                   91

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CASES

A.C.F. v Commonwealth (1986) 146 CMLR 493

A.G. Lagos State v. AG Federation (2003) 12 NWLR (pt. 833).

Abacha & Ors. V. Gani Fawehinmi (2000)6 NWLR (pt. 660) p. 228

Abiola v. Ijeoma (1970) 2 All NLR 768

Adeniran v. Interland Transport Limited (1986)2 NWLR (pt. 20) p. 78

Allah Irou v. Shell BP. Suit No. W/89/71 (Unreported)

Amos & Others v. Shell BP. (1977) 6 S.C. p. 9

Archbishop Anthony Olubunmi Okojie & Ors. V. Attorney-General of Lagos State (1981) 1 Nigerian Constitutional Law Report 262.

Fawehinmi v. Akilu (1987)4 NWLR (pt. 67) p. 797

Isaiah v. SPDC (2001) 11 NWLR (pt. 723) p. 168.

Mcdonald v. Associated Fuels Ltd (1954 (1954)3 D.L.R. 775

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation v. Selle (2004) 4 NWLR (pt. 856) p. 379

Obasanjo v. Yusuf (2004)9 NWLR (pt. 877)p. 144.

Onajoke v. Seismograph Services Ltd (Unreported) Suit. No. SHC/28/67

Oronto Douglass v. SPDC & Others (Unreported) Suit No. FHC/L/CS/573/931

Owoniyi Omotosho (1961) NLR 30

  1. v. Inspectorate of Pollution Ex Parte Green Peace (1994) 2 CMLR 548, (1994) All E.R. 329

Read v. Lyods and Co. Ltd (1945) KB 216 p. 236.

Ryland v. Fetcher (1886) I.R. EX 265

SP.D.C. v. H.B. Fishermen (2002) 4 N.W.L.R. (pt. 758) p. 205

Seismograph Services v. Mark (1993) 7 NWLR 203

Seismograph Services v. Ogbeni (1976) I.S.C. 85

Shela Zia v Water and Power Development Authority Plc (1994) SCA 16

Total (Nig.) Plc v. I.I.R.A. (2004)7 NWLR (pt. 873) p. 453

Umudje v. Shell BP (1975) 9-11 SC 172

 

 

 

TABLE OF STATUTES

Constitution of The Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999        –

The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap 10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990

The Criminal Code Cap 77 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990

The Criminal Procedure Act Cap 80 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990

The Evidence Act, Cap 1 2 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990

Associated Gas Re-Injection Act, Cap 26 LFN 1990

Edo State Environmental Sanitation Edict of 1994

Environmental Sanitation Edict of 1994

Environmental Impact Assessment Act 1992 –

National Environmental Standards Regulations Enforcement Agency Act 2007

Harmful Waste (Special Criminal Provisions) Act Cap 165, LFN, 1990

Oil in Navigable Waters Act Cap 337, LFN, 1990

Oil Terminal Due Act Cap 339 LFN, 1990

The Petroleum Act Cap 310 LFN, 1990

Petroleum Drilling and Production Regulations Cap 350 LFN, 1990

Mineral Oil Safety Regulations, Cap 350 LFN, 1990

Oyo State Environmental Sanitation Edict, 1986

The Civil Aviation Act Cap 51 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990

Lagos State Environmental Sanitation Edict No. 3 1998

The Basel Convention of 1987

The Bomako Convention of 1991

The Stockholm Conference of 1972

 

 

TABLE OF ABBREVIATION

A.C.                                                    Appeal Cases

All ER                                                All England Reports

A.N.L.R.                                            All Nigerian Law Reports

Cr. App. R.                                       Criminal Appeal Reports

E.N.L.R.                                             Eastern Nigerian Law Reports

N.L.R.                                                Nigerian Law Reports

N.M.L.R.                                           Nigerian Monthly Law Report

N.R.N.L.R.                                        Northern Region of Nigeria Law Reports

N.S.C.C.                                            Nigeria Supreme Courts Cases

N.W.L.R.                                           Nigerian Weekly Law Report

Q.B.                                                    Queen’s Bench

S.C.N.J.                                              Supreme Court of Nigeria Judgements

W.A.C.A.                                          Selected Judgements of the West African Court of Appeal

W.L.R.                                                Weekly Law Report

W.R.N.L.R.                                       Western Region of Nigeria Law Report

K.B.                                                     Law Report of Kings Bench