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PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOODASH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)

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PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOODASH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)

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PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOODASH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)

Abstract

Soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash. Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively. Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.

This research project is thus a research on preparation of local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (ejeasis guineensis).

 

Chapter one of the study lays a theoretical framework for subsequent chapters.  Following the general introduction, types of soap, the problem statement and the objective of the study which provided basis for the significance of the study. The limitation of this study were also highlighted.

 

In the literature review as contained in chapter two, works of various authors, international and local journals were reviewed to elicit views on preparation of local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (ejeasis guineensis).

 

Chapter three, research methodology, sample collection, field experimentation/sample collection, areas expected to cover in lab works, fabrication of squrpment used for the extraction, ignition of “ngu”, extraction procedure, crystainzation and  recrystallization, determination of the ph sample, physical examination and tests, determination of caustic strength of solution, extraction of caustic at  different distant time were highlighted and discussed.

Chapter four was based on presentation of results. This chapter was sub-divided into presentation of results for extraction studies, of caustic from ash and preliminary test on sample, how to prepare 0.2ml hcl, result of preliminary tests and filtration end point and qualitative analysis.

Finally, chapter five was divided into discussion of results and conclusion, ashing of the wood, extraction of caustic from ash, determination of ph and strength of the caustic strength, qualitative analysis, conclusion, recommendation and summary.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –       

1.2     TYPES OF SOAP         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

1.3     AIM AND OBJECTIVES       –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

1.4     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS       –        –        –        –        –        –       

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

1.6     LIMITATION OF THESE STUDIES         –        –        –        –        –        –       

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     SOURCES OF WOOD ASH FOR LOCAL MANUFACTURE–      –        –

2.2     SYNTHETIC METHOD FOR CAUSTIC SODA–      –       –          –        –

2.3     SOLUTY PROCESS  (AMMONIA ASH) –      –        –       –          –        –

2.4     LEBLANCE PROCESS–  –        –        –        –        –       –          –        –

2.5     CHEMISTRY OF ALKALI–         –        –        –        –        –       –          –

2.6     EFFECT ON SOAP MANUFACTURE  –        –        –        –        –        –      

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0              METHODOLOGY  –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.1     SAMPLE COLLECTION– –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2     FIELD EXPERIMENTATION/SAMPLE COLLECTION–    –        –        –

3.3              AREAS EXPECTED TO COVER IN LAB WORKS– –        –        –

3.4     FABRICATION OF SQURPMENT USED FOR THE EXTRACTION–     –

3.5     IGNITION OF “NGU” –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.6              EXTRACTION PROCEDURE–   –        –        –        –        –        –

3.7     CRYSTAINZATION AND  RECRYSTALLIZATION PROCESS USING DISTILLATION APPARATUS–        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.8     DETERMINATION OF THE PH SAMPLE–     –        –        –        –        –

3.9     PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND TESTS–     –        –        –        –        –

3.10   DETERMINATION OF CAUSTIC STRENGTH OF SOLUTION   –         –

3.11   EXTRACTION OF CAUSTIC AT DIFFERENT DISTANT TIME   –         –

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0     PRESENTATION OF RESULTS          –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

4.1    PRESENTATION OF RESULTS FOR EXTRACTION STUDIES OF CAUSTIC FROM ASH AND PRELIMINARY TEST ON SAMPLE      –        –        –        –       

4.2 FILTRATION READING FOR DETERMINATIONATION OF CAUSTIC STRENGTH OF SAMPLE –   –        –        –        –        –        –      – –        –

4.3     HOW TO PREPARE 0.2ml HCL–        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.4     RESULT OF PRELIMINARY TESTS AND FILTRATION END POINT

–        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        –        –        –        –       

4.5     QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS–        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0     DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSION     –        –        –        –        –

5.1              ASHING OF THE WOOD      –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

5.2              EXTRACTION OF CAUSTIC FROM ASH        –        –        –        –        –       

5.3              DETERMINATION OF PH AND STRENGTH OF THE CAUSTIC STRENGTH

          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –        –        –        –

5.4              QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS  –        –        –        –        –        –        –       

5.5     CONCLUSION    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.6     RECOMMENDATION –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.7     SUMMARY         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       –          –

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

 

CHAPTER   ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND

Soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994).  It is also an unsaturated ester since an ester can be split into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid by hydrolysis.  Meaning that it does not contain all the solutes that can be dissolve at a particular temperature (Kirt Othmer, 1994).  Also soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid because if a metallic base is used in the hydrolysis instead of water, the metallic salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained, not the acid because carboxylic acid are weak acid which dissociates only slightly in solution

(Hou, 1992).

 

 

Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively (Cook 1990).

Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.

C3H5 (COOR)3   +   3KOH                3KOOCR   +   C3H5  (OH)

(where R – represent the hydrocarbon chain) also according to the equation above, soaps was made in huge keittes into which fat and oil and alkali were piped and heated until it boils vigorously.

Saponification is the process used in making soap since ancient times, soaps have been made from vegetable and animal oil and fats looked in alkali (Kott, NaoH) (Steiner, 1990).  Soap and detergent are both cleaning agents and both work in the same way, but soap cleanse with the natural occurring materials such as animal fat and wood ash.

 

1.2     TYPES OF SOAP

In the world of soap manufacturing, there are basically three types of soap, under them they are classified according to their categories:

(1)     Foreign Soap

These are soap that is medically investigated to cure a skin diseases.  Examples:

 

(a)     Medicated soap

  1. Antiseptic soap
  2. Germicidic soap

iii.      Herbal soap

 

(b)     Tablets Soap

These are soap that is operated and purified, dyes and perfumed added, to make the skin mild.

Example:    i.        Toilet Soap

  1. Bar Soap

(c)      Local Soap

These are meant for a purpose not medically investigated but meant for cleaning ability.

  1. Black soap
  2. Sida Soap.

 

But here we are basically on the one made from Local raw material, which is the black soap (Ncha Nkota).

 

1.3     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

  1. AIM

Preparation of soap using local raw materials.

  1. OBJECTIVES
  2. To prepare local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (Ejeasis Guineensis), which serves as an alkali.
  3. To know the trees in which caustic alkali can be obtained apart from palm tree (Eleasis Guineensis).
  4. To improve the properly preparation of local soap and high quality local soap.
  5. To educate some illiterate local soap producers on how to set a standard in the production of local soap and still retain its effectiveness and for a wider acceptability.
  6. To create awareness on the need and importance of locally made soap analysis.
  7. To make known to or enlighten especially the local soap producers (both urban and rural manufacturers) on the best and exact quantity or raw materials and methods to use to achieve better results in their products.
  8. This research project could as well as form basis for further research work on local soaps analysis in this institution.

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  • Vendor: ProWriters
  • Address: 15 ikpa road
    Uyo
    Akwa Ibom
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