RISK IMPLICATION OF UNEMPLYMENT AND UNDER EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
- Background of the study
The Nigerian economy since the attainment of political independence in 1960 has undergone fundamental structural changes resulting to structural shifts which have however not resulted in any significant sustainable economic growth and development to ensure adequate employment opportunity for her youths. Recently, available data show that the Nigerian economy grew relatively in the greater parts of the 1970s, with respect to the oil boom of the 1970s whose extreme profits resulted to wasteful expenditures in the public sector leading to dislocation of the employment factors and also distorted the revenue bases for policy planning. This among many other crises resulted in the introduction of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 and the recent economic reforms. The core objective of the economic structural reform is a total restructuring of the Nigerian economy in the face of population explosion (Douglason et al, 2006). However, these economic and financial structural reforms put in place did not yield significant results, hence in recent past; there has been an alarming increase in the rate of youth unemployment and its attendant social and economic problems. Unemployment is one of the developmental problems that face every developing economy (Patterson et al, 2006), and Nigeria is not exempted. Its impact has been felt more by the youths. Nigerian youths from all corners of the country rush to Lagos state in search of white-collar jobs, especially, the graduates. This is because of the believe that Lagos state, being the former Federal Capital State and centre of excellence has more (job) opportunities than other states, necessitating the scuttle to Lagos for greener pastures. This rush has led to the profligacy of the rate of unemployment in the state. This is not to say that unemployment is absent in the other states of the federation or even less, hence the general observations from many researchers on Nigerian unemployment such as Alanana (2003), Echebiri (2005) and Awogbenle and Iwuamadi (2010), Okafor (2011).
In their research endeavors, they have brought to the fore that youth unemployment across the world has reached a great height and is likely to climb further. Okafor (2011) documented that in Sub-Sahara Africa, youth population was estimated at 138 million people in 2002-2003, with28.9 million, or 21 percent of them unemployed (ILO, 2004). It has also been reported that youth unemployment in Africa has a geographical dimension as it is generally higher in the urban areas than in rural ones such as Lagos state and several factors have bee adduced to account for higher youth unemployment rate in Africa, most notably low economic growth, low economic activity and low investment. These related factors contribute to low job creation and because of sustained (increased in some cases) population growth the small labour market is unable to absorb the resulting army of job seekers in Nigeria.
- Statement of the general problem
The issue of unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria has been a cause for serious concern had has had a dangerous consequence both on the economy of Nigeria and safety of her citizenry. The menace of unemployment has led to increase in theft, fraud and other social vices therefore making the Nigerian society an unsafe haven for investors and citizens.
- Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine the risk implication of unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study are as follows:
- To examine the level of unemployment in Nigeria.
- To determine the relationship between unemployment and social vices in Nigeria.
- To recommend ways of reducing unemployment in Nigeria.
- Research Questions
- What is the risk implication of unemployment and under employment in Nigeria?
- What is the level of unemployment in Nigeria.
- What is the relationship between unemployment and social vices in Nigeria?
- What are the ways of reducing unemployment in Nigeria?
- Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no risk implication of unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria.
H1: There are risk implications of unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria.
- Significance of the study
This study would be of immense importance to government at all levels and policy makers in formulating policies that would enhance employment in Nigeria. This study would also be of immense importance to scholars and researchers who are interested in this research.
- Scope of the study
This study is restricted to the risk implication of unemployment and under employment in Nigeria