SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMERS’ BEHAVIOUR IN THE MARKETING OF SOME SELECTED CONSUMER’S GOODS
With the established changes in consumer behavior which influences product marketing strategies, stimulate the researcher to find out the sociological factors affecting customer’s behavior in the marketing of some selected consumers goods in use. The basic product marketing strategies use for consumers product has been carefully considered by this study, the researcher employed some research tools as interviews, observation and questionnaire to collect the necessary information as to the sociological factor affecting customer’s behavior. This is done in order to know the desired consumer’s needs, wants, and incomes to know the extent to which the sociological factors affect their behavior. Thus the student shows that marketers take into cognizance the customer’s needs, incomes, statues and life style. The philosophical marketing concept of consumer goods and preferences and this enable the marketers to push or sell it product in the market.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – viii
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Historical Background – – – – – 4
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – – 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.4 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.5 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 10
1.6 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 11
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 14
2.1 Abraham Maslow Physiological Needs – – – 14
2.2 Consumer Behaviour – – – – – – 16
2.3 Sociological Perspectives of Consumer Behaviour – 18
2.4 Psychological Perspectives of Consumer Behaviour 23
2.5 Cultural Factor Affecting Consumer Behaviour – 29
2.6 Relationship between Marketers and Consumers – 33
3.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 39
3.3 Recommendation – – – – – – 40
Bibliography – – – – – – – 41
Sociological factor affecting the individual as a customer in marketing of some selected consumer goods is that, the distribution a customer and a consumer is hard or complex to come or conclude upon. This is because customer can as the same time be a consumer. For example, a house wife who in her weekly shopping trip acting as an agent on behalf of her household, she is a customer and her family is the consumer. Therefore this two concept will be used for the purpose of this project as meaning the same thing. The question now to be asked is who is our potential customer as distinct from our actual customer? But the answer to this question can provide us with valuable insight into the sociological factors affecting the customers behavior in marketing of some selected consumer goods. If we are able to identify our potential customer, we can be able to at the same time convert them to actual customers.
Indeed, a potential market for any product or services must therefore be grounded upon a clear view of what influence prompt customer to need our product or services, knowledge of who our customer are, implies an ability to describe them for marketing action. Recognizing that customers the differences can enable the marketers to achieve a closer matching of customers need for the product or services offering.
This contention is supported by COLBORNE & WILDON when they said “no marketing effort however inspired, is likely to achieve its maximum success, unless there is accurate understanding of the buying process.”
Here the emphasis is that without the knowledge of the market, the buying that composes it and the attitude and authority of purchasers and their operation cannot be met. However those changes in marketing found themselves obliged to take decision and to formulate strategies inside a frame work of un-provided assumption about fact and condition. This can only result in a marketing organization, this is forced to work less than maximum efficiency, and in error and resulting losses could be avoided.
IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER GROUPING TAKE INTO ACCOUNT OF TWO APPROCHED
- Marketing segmentation: Through the analysis of the response or behavior of the customer
- The market approach through the analysis of the characteristic or attribute of the customers. It can be explained that the study of customers behavior in marketing is mainly the study of how people choose from the selected product, by this study, although, this is done in order to know the desire consumer’s needs and wants and in other to know the extent to which the sociological factor affect their behavior.
In conclusion, at the end of this study, one should be able to know who our potential consumers are and also to know consumers behavior in terms of some selected product and how to develop a strong marketing programme and effective decision which goes with the sociological perspective of the selected consumers goods.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Historically, market has being in existence ever before now, but it scope of learning or concept is too limited, then nobody knows who was a potential customer. Then marketing of goods were taken and carried out without concept or logic attach to it (at randomly) the insight into sociological factors affecting customers behavior in marketing of some selected consumer goods were completely absent or ignored.
Although this is due to poor education that is (illiteracy) which have pervaded in the marketing environment.
Therefore, no potential for any product or services, no knowledge of who are our customers. Early marketing goods technique followed production and were responsible for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of financial sale. Now however marketing is much pervasive as development tend to take action at gradual procedure in large cooperation, the marketing function proceed the manufacture of a product, they involve market research and product development, designed and testing. The social science were not increasingly utilized in customer research, in psychology and sociology for example by providing dues to people activities, circumstances, wants, desires and general motivation are key to understand the various behavioural patterns of consumers. Perhaps, it was later discovered that coupled with application from social science has been the introduction of modern measuring method, when survey is made to determine the extent of market for a particular product this method include the use of statistics and computer utilization to determine trend in consumer desire for various product, sociological, physiological, and scientific. Analysis is being used in such area as product development particularly in evaluating sales potential of new product ideas.
However one of the most intrusting and importance in marketing theory is the continuous and rapid changes in consumer behavior, interest and desired theory these influence we are today able to be in modern marketing environment or theory consumer today are more sophisticated than those of past generation because they attend schools for much longer years, they are also exposed to newspaper, magazine, movies, radio, television, and traveling, they have much greater interaction with other people.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
This study provide a defined answer to the problem or question such as what factor influence customers in purchasing certain commodities as well as attitude of customer towards other selected goods as JOHN R. G. JERKINS had it in (1972) this belief is that today marketers are looking for models of customers behaviours, which attempt to describe and explain the influence of several and all marketing action up choice one of such factor is the sociological factor designed to enable premises on the sociological factors affecting customer behavior in the marketing of some selected consumer goods and services.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The emerge of the study was as a result of changes in consumer behavior which related and influence product marketing strategy stimulating the researcher to find out the sociological factor affecting customers behavior in marketing of some selected consumer goods in use.
More also, the purpose of the study is to see that basic product marketing strategies use for consumer product has been carefully considered.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study as early stated is of a descriptive nature it does not subject its data to statistical analysis, it only attempt to identify similarities if any between the finding and existing of customers behavior towards some selected consumer goods. It is not also thought that the analysis is essential because human behavior is said to be dynamic and unpredictable on the basis of past behavior.
The area examined in this study include:
- The factor that influence consumer to purchase certain goods or product
- Factors that debate consumer from other certain product.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research is based on the study of sociological factors affecting customers behavior in the marketing of some selected consumer goods. Ideally the research work would have being carried out on a wide perspectives but it cannot be possible because of certain constraint or force manner. In developing countries e.g. Nigerian students normally face with great shortage of relevant fact that are necessary for their research work and mine is not an exception.
However confidence and ability are the best asset every human being could posses the constraint researcher do encounter during the research work are:
- Time Factor: The student faced a very short hour to complete the write up, which is very short for a meaningful work one would have expected a large period.
- Dynamic nature of consumer behavior: You also find out consumer behavior cannot be predicted often time, consumer turn down what appear to be a winning offer to them and also when you think they will not buy a particular product you find out that will be the time they will rush for such goods, this is due to the fact that human being versatile and dynamic to their way of life. So this also hinders the research work to be carried away out successfully.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Sociological factor can be said to be those factors that cause barrier to the need or choice of some specific goods or product, in this regard the changes can be with respect to the attitude of customer enduring favourable or unfavourable cognitive, evaluation, emotional, feeling and action tendencies towards some object and idea the study of group belonging and decision making. The consumer behavior can be said to be an act of individual directly involve in obtaining and using economic goods and services including the process that precede the act.
However, the following concept need to be collaborate
- Some selected consumer goods: This can be known as the goods that can be highly favourable and highly accepted by the consumer for example mostly liver brothers product e.g. omo, close up, blue band, lux soap and the rest has been widely used and most accepted by the consumers.
- Cognitive dissonance: This can be said to be the way which state that is normal for individual to believe in a normal that is consisted with the house hold believe or attitude and to avoid situation were their potential action would be inconsistent with the believe and attitudes
- Reference group: These are groups whose perspectives constitute the frame or reference of the consumer. The names of the groups are used as ending point in strutting the field.