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STOOL ANALYSIS FOR PARASITIC WORMS (ENTERIC WORM) AMONG THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN UDI ROAD PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

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STOOL ANALYSIS FOR PARASITIC WORMS (ENTERIC WORM) AMONG THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN UDI ROAD PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

 

 

 

Stools from primary School pupils in Asata Enugu were analysed for parasitic worms.  The analyses were conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory Department of National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu.  A total of hundred (100) samples collected randomly form Udi road primary School in the process of the examination brine floatation method was used, normal saline and stool samples were examined for the parasitic worms.

 

Out of the hundred (100) pupils examined 46 cases showed positive while 54 cases showed negative and is showed hookworm while 31 showed Ascaris Ova, Cysts in their faeces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Title page

 

Certification

 

Dedication

 

Acknowledgement

 

Abstract

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

CHAPTER   ONE                           INTRODUCTION

 

1.0     DEFINITION

 

1.1     Sources of Infection

 

1.2     Life cycle of Worms Helminths

 

1.3     Patyhogenicity of Hookworm

 

1.4     Diseases Cause by Parasitic Worms and their Transmission Modes

 

1.5     Parasite and Worm found in Stool

 

1.6     Control and Prevention Of Enteric Parasitic Worm

 

1.7     Diagnosis of Worm Infection

 

CHAPTER   TWO                         

 

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1     Epidemiology of Worms

 

2.2     Clinical Manifestations

 

2.3     diagnostic Methods

 

2.4     food-Borne Helminthiasis

 

 

 

CHAPTER   THREE

 

3.0     STUDY METHODOLOGY

 

3.1     Materials used

 

3.2     Study Area

 

3.3     Sample Collection

 

3.4     Method Used

 

 

 

CHPATER   FOUR

 

4.0     RESULTS

 

4.1     Result

 

4.2     Distribution of Helminth Egg Positives

 

4.3     Comparative Prevalence of Hook Worm

 

4.4     Ascaris

 

 

 

CHAPTER   FIVE

 

5.1     Summary and Conclusion

 

5.2     Consideration

 

5.3     Method of Achieving a Hook Worm Free Individuals

 

          REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER    ONE

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.0     DEFINITION OF ENTERIC WORM

 

Enteric worm are define as organisms that live in the intestine of humans or animals and invest their food from the intestine to grow.  The most common of the parasitic-worms that infect the human intestine are viz.:

 

Reound Worms   (-Asearis spp)

 

Hook Worms       (Ancycostoma duodenate and Necator spp).

 

Whip worms        (Irichuris trichiura)

 

Pin Worms           (Enterobius Vermicularis)

 

 

 

The presence of these various types of worms in large numbers coupled with the poor living habits of large segments of the world population has made the control of these worms difficulty and their eradication nearly impossible.  That human life and the worms have been in separately interrelated is quite a challenge to mouth transmission dynamics and also that man cannot control the entry into his mouth of materials that pass through his anus is a puzzle.  Here, helminthiasis (literally means infections and parasites caused by worms) is the worst culprite.

 

 

 

1.1     SOURCES OF INFECTION

 

The primary source of worm infestation is the food or water contaminated with infected faeces.  When these parasites are passed out through the anus, some of them find their way to food used by man and get it contaminated.  Examples are Ascaris eggs on vegetables such as Solanium, lettuce, Cabbage and other vegetables eaten raw or poorly washed.  So when men feed on such contaminated foods they get infected.  Another source is the soil, that is the soil borne infections stage.  Here the eggs of these wormshatch in the soil and the third stage larva (Lz) find its way into the host by actively boring into the skin.  Examples are the hookworms (Necator, strongy bodies, Ancylostoma etc.).  Some soil-borne infective larval stage exploits human behavioural pattern for its entry.  The soil transmitted intestinal nematodes – round worms Ascaris Lumbricoides, ancylostoms duodenele and Nectator americanus rank highest among all the helminthes and their prevalence in different communities serves as an index of socio-economic status.  Ascaris and Trichuris affect the health of children especially, the former being a frequent cause of complications and death in many parts of the world, the later causing severe and stubborn – dysentery.  The hookworms are recognized as important causes of anaemia particularly in older children and young adults.  The obvious high rank of hookworm infection as a cause of debilating disease placed it first among helminthiasis to be attacked on a wide scale.

 

 

 

1.2     LIFE CYCLE OF WORMS HELMINTHES

 

These enteric parasitic worms all pass through a series of development stage before the adult stage is reached where the – organism becomes sexually mature and a new life cycle develop.  These are several live cycles depending on the organisms involved.  Within the life cycle, one on several phases of parasitic multiplication may occur depending one species it may be sexual or asexual.

 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT LIFE CYCLES

 

There are two types of life cycle viz.:

 

  1. Direct life cycle

 

  1. Indirect life cycle

 

DIRECT LIFE CYCLE

 

Here a single host species is required for the parasite to complete it development example Trichuris trichiura and ancylostoma duodenale.

 

 

 

INDIRECT LIFE CYCLE

 

Here two or more species of host are required for the parasite to complete its life cycle example – Taenis Saginata – requires two hoots for it to complete its life cycle.  In the life cycle of ascaris, Trichuris, ancylostoma, Necator and other helminthes that commonly infect human being, the soil received the faecal contamination stages which are not infective i.e. free living then the soil provides conditions under which development to the infective stage can take place.  It provides protection for the infective stage for a period during which it fortuitously may be brought into contact with a susceptible individual whom it may enter by mouth (Ascaris, Trichuria and Ancylostoma) or by skin (Necator).  This the soil serves the parasite essentially the same manner as an intermediate host.  In the life cycle of Ascaris or in Ascariasis infection – ingesting worm eggs contamining infective larvae inside infects A patient.  The eggs hatch in the small intestine, then the larvae are liberated and then penetrated the intestinal wall, gain entrance into muscular system. 

 

From here they enter the liver, heart and finally the lungs.  It is in the latter organ that they reside for a week or more and induce preumonitis reactions.  Following this they ascend the respiratory tract to the pharynx where the larvae are swallowed and then mature into adult worms in small intestine after several – weeks.  The eggs are released in the faeces in a non-embryonated condition and they are incubated in the soil for a few weeks in order that the infective larva may develop.  In children ascariosis seems to be more of a hand-to-mouth kind of transmission, whereas in adult the contamination of food with infective eggs is probably the chief source of infection Muller (1989).   In the case of Hookworms i.e. Ancylostoma and especially Necator, a patient becomes infected by the contact of his/her skin to infective larvae. 

 

Penetration of the skin by infective hookworm larva produces a dermatitis known as dewitch or ground itch.  After skin penetration, the larvae are eventually carried to the heart, then enter the arterial circulation, and within a day or two, filter out in the lung capillaries.  After growth and development in the lungs for about a week, the larvae break into the alveolar sacs, ascend the respiratory tract and are swallowed and then develop into mature hookworms in the small intestine in a mouth or two.  Here the worms mate and the female lays eggs, which pass out in the faeces.  Necator lays about 10,000 eggs daily while Ancylostoma lays 10,000 eggs daily.  (Havard Dictionary 35th Edition). 

 

Under suitable conditions of the soil, the eggs develop and hatch into rhabdit form larva, which then grows and develop and then hatch into filariform larva of the worm.