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THE EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL ON THE PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BEANS

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THE EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL ON THE PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BEANS

5,000.00 3,000.00

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THE EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL ON THE PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BEANS

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                                       i

Certification                                                                                                                                   ii

Approval page                                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                                     iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                         v

Table of content                                                                                                                             vi

List of figures                                                                                                                                xi

List of table                                                                                                                                    xii

Abstract                                                                                                                                        xiii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                                                                                              1

1.1 Statement of study problem                                                                                                     3

1.2 Relevance of study                                                                                                                   3

1.3 Aim & Objective of study                                                                                                        3

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Soil contamination by crude oil                                                                                                5

2.2 The effect of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) on soil                                                       7

2.3 Impact of crude oil spillage pollution on agricultural soil properties and crop growth           9

2.4 Effect of different crude oil fractions on growth and oxidative stress parameters of plant    12

2.5 Effect of light crude oil contamination on the germination shoot growth of plant grown      14                   in sandy loam soil

2.6.0 Common beans (phaseolus vulgaris)                                                                                    16

2.6.1 Bioactive components in common beans (phaseolus vulgaris)                                             19

2.6.1.1 Polyphenols                                                                                                                        20

2.6.1.2 Lectins                                                                                                                               22

2.6.1.3 Trypsin inhibitors                                                                                                               28

2.7.0 Magnesium deficiency and high light intensity enhance activities of                                 30

Superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in beans leaves

2.7.1 Superoxide dismutase                                                                                                          31

2.7.2 Catalase                                                                                                                                33

2.7.3 Lipid peroxidase                                                                                                                  36

2.7.4 Ascorbate peroxidase                                                                                                           40

2.7.4.1 Characteristics of ascorbate peroxidase                                                                            42

2.7.5 Peroxidase                                                                                                                            44

2.7.6 Glutathione Reductase                                                                                                        45

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1 Reagents                                                                                                                                 47

3.2 Crude oil Collection                                                                                                                47

3.3 Experimental design and agronomic details                                                                           47

3.4 Relative water content (RWC) determination                                                                        48

3.5 Soil analysis                                                                                                                            49

3.5.1 Wet oxidation method for soil digestion (heavy metals)                                                     49

3.5.2 Exchange acidity in soil                                                                                                       49

3.5.3 Exchangeable cations in soil                                                                                                50

3.5.4 Determination % organic carbon and organic matter in soil                                                51

(using walkley-black method)

3.5.5 Available Phosphorus in soil                                                                                                52

3.5.6 Available Nitrate in soil                                                                                                       53

3.6 Preparation of Homogenate                                                                                                    54

3.7 Determination of Protein content                                                                                           55

3.8 Determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration                                                    56

3.9 Determination of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration                                               57

3.10 Determination of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity                                                     58

3.11 Determination of Catalase activity                                                                                       59

3.12 Determination of Ascorbate Peroxidase activity                                                                              60

3.13 Peroxidase                                                                                                                             61

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS                                                                                                                                   62

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.0 Discussion                                                                                                                               70

5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                                              72

 

REFERENCES                                                                                                                          73

APPENDIX I: Result of analysis carried out on experimental soil                                              95

APPENDIX II: Standard calibration curve for protein determination                                        96

APPENDIX III: Standard calibration curve for GSH concentration                                                      97

APPENDIX IV: Standard calibration curve for the determination of catalase activity

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