Selected:

THE EFFECT OF KAKA BITTERS ON THE LIPID PROFILE OFWISTAR RATS FED WITH HIGH FAT DIET

5,000.00 3,000.00

Sale!

THE EFFECT OF KAKA BITTERS ON THE LIPID PROFILE OFWISTAR RATS FED WITH HIGH FAT DIET

5,000.00 3,000.00

Report Abuse

Description

THE EFFECT OF KAKA BITTERS ON THE LIPID    PROFILE OFWISTAR RATS FED WITH HIGH FAT DIET

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of content                                                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi

(Abstract, Hindi)…………………………………………………………………………..vii

List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………viii

List of figures………………………………………………………………………………..ix

List of tables………………………………………………………………………………….x

CHAPTER 1

1.0       INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….1

1.1       LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………2

1.1.1    BITTERS – AN OVERVIEW………………………………………………………2

1.1.1.1 HISTORY OF BITTERS……………………………………………………………3

1.1.1.2 GENERAL MEDICINAL  PROPERTIES OF BITTERS………..…………………4

1.1.1.3 CHEMISTRY OF BITTERS………….…….………………………………………5

1.1.1.4 MECHANISM OF ACTION OF BITTER…..………………………………………6

1.1.2    BLOOD LIPIDS…………………………………………………………………….7

1.1.2.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..8

1.1.2.2 GENERAL FUNCTION OF BLOOD LIPOPROTEIN………………………….…9

1.1.2.3 TYPES OF BLOOD LIPIDS……………………………………………………….10

1.1.2.4 CHYLOMICRONS…………….…………………………………………………..11

1.1.2.5 VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN….…………………………………..12

1.1.2.6 INTERMEDIATE DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN…………………………………13

1.1.2.7 LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN………………………………………………14

1.1.2.8 HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN……………………………………………..15

1.1.2.9 FREE FATTY ACID…………………………………………………………  28

1.1.2.10BIOCHEMICAL BASIS OF LIPOPROTEIN IMPLICATION IN                       PATHOGENESIS……………………………………………………………. 30

1.1.2.11 IMPLICATION OF ABNORMAL LIPID PROFILE………………………..31

1.1.2.12FACTORS AFFECTING LIPID PROFILE…………………………………32

1.3       KAKA BITTERS…………………………………………………………….33

1.3.1                SWERTIA CHIRATA

1.3.2                PIPER RETROFRACTUM

1.3.3                BUTEA MONOSPERMA

1.3.4                NARDOSTACHY JATAMANSI

1.3.5                MYRISTICA FRAGRANS

1.4       JUSTIFICATION………………………………………..…………………..34.

1.4.1    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY……………………………………….…34

1.4.2    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY………………………………………………35

CHAPTER 2

MATERIALS AND METHOD

2.1       MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………..16

2.1.1    PROCUREMENT OF KAKA BITTERS……………………………………………17

2.1.2    EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS………………………………………………………..18

2.1.3    OTHER MATERIALS………………………………………………………………19

2.1.4    CHEMICAL REAGENTS…………………………………………………………..20

2.1.5    ANIMALS……………………………………………………………………………21

2.1.6    FEED…………………………………………………………………………………22

2.2       METHOD……………………………………………………………………………23

2.2.1    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN………………………………………………………..24

2.2.2    FORMULATION OF FAT ENHANCED DIET……………………………………25

2.2.3    DETERMINATION OF DOSE ADMINISTERED………………………………..26

2.2.4    SACRIFICE OF ANIMAL/SAMPLE COLLECTION…………………………….27

2.2.5    DETERMINATION OF TOTAL CHOLESTEROL……………………………….28

2.2.6    DETERMINATION OF HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL…..29

2.2.7    DETERMINATION OF TRIGLYCERIDE……………………………………….30

2.3       STATISTICAL ANALYSIS…………………………………………………….31

CHAPTER 3

RESULTS…….………………………………………………………………………….32

CHAPTER 4

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

4.1       DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………..33

4.2       CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….34

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

 

 

ABSTRACT

Kaka bitters like other bitters is claimed to possess a number of folkloric therapeutic effects including lipid-lowering effects. However, there is no scientific data available as at the time of this study to evidence this claim. The Lipid-lowering effects of Kaka bitters were investigated by assessing it effects on the blood lipid parameters of wistar rats fed fat-enhanced diet. The was divided into three (3) groups: Group 1 rats was fed normal feed with distilled water; Group 2 was fed fat-enhanced diet with distilled water and Group 3 was fed fat-enhanced diet with Kaka bitters. The result obtained shows that blood TG levels decreased in group 3 rats compared with group 2, but the decrease is not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also there was a statistically significant decrease in blood HDL levels and also statistically significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL levels of group 3 rats compared with group 2 (p < 0.05). The hyperlipidemic effect of Kaka bitters indicated by this result may be due to the alcoholic nature of Kaka bitters coupled with the antimicrobial effect of the bitters against the gut microbiota implicated in cholesterol metabolism and excretion. Kaka bitters is not a good therapy for treatment of dyslipidemia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

%…………………………………………………………………………………percentage

∆…………………………………………………….……….change

µ/ml……………………………………………….…………micron per milliliter

Ab………………………………………………..………….Absorbance

Av…………………………………………………………Average

CHD………………………………………..……………….Coronary heart disease

Chol……….………………………………………………Cholesterol

Conc……………………………………………….………..concentration

FED………………………………………………………….Fat enhanced diet

FFA………………………………………………………… Free Fatty Acid

g……………………………………………………………gram

HDL……………………….………………………………High density lipoprotein

HFD…………………………………………………….…..High fat diet

KB………………………………………………………..…Kaka bitters

Kg………………………………………………………….Kilogram

LDL……………………………………………….……….Low density lipoprotein

Lp[a]…………………………………….…………………..Lipoprotein (a)

Max…………………………………………………………Maximum

Min…………………………………………………………Minimum

ml……………………………………………………………milliliter

mmol/L……………………………………………………..millimole per liter

NEFA……………………………………………………….Non-esterified Fatty Acid

r.p.m…………………………………………………………revolution per minute

std……………………………………………………………standard

TAG…………………………………………………………Triacylglycerol

TC…………………………………….……………………..Total cholesterol

TRIG…………………………………………………….…Triglyceride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1        Piper petrofractum plant

Figure 1.2        Piper petrofractum fruits

Figure 1.3        Butea monosperma plant

Figure  1.4       Butea monosperma fruit and flower

Figure 1.5        Nardostachys jatamansi plant

Figure 1.6        M. frangrance fruit

Figure 1.6b      Mace (red) within nutmeg

Figure 1.bc      Nutmeg seed showing “vein”

Figure 3.1        Graph showing lipid profile parameter and net weight change of groups

Figure 3.2        Graph showing feed consumed per week, average weight per week and average weight gain per week

Figure 3.3        Graph showing average feed consumed, average weight and average weight gain per week of group 3

Figure 3.4        Graph showing average feed consumed and average weight per week of the group 3 rats

Figure 5           Correlation of HDL with TAGs of groups administered Kaka bitters simultaneously with fat – enhanced diet.

Figure 6           Correlation of LDL with TAGs of groups administered Kaka bitters simultaneously with fat – enhanced diet.

 

 

 

Figure 7           Correlation of TAGs with cholesterol of groups administered Kaka bitters simultaneously with fat – enhanced diet.

Figure 8           Correlation of TAGs with weights at the sixth week of rat administered Kaka bitters simultaneously with fat – enhanced diet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1         List of other materials used

Table 2.2         Procedure for the determination of total cholesterol

Table 2.3         Procedure for the determination of HDL\

Table 2.4         Procedure for the determination of LDL

Table 3.1         Lipid profile of wistar rat after six (6) weeks

Table 3.2         Net weight change of fats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Bitters as well as other medicinal plants have been the companions of man since time immemorial (Adaramoye, 2008). They occupy a central and integral place in modern herbal therapeutic medicine because of their efficacy and lesser toxicity compared synthetic drug. Many herbal remedies including bitters have been believed or known to be effective in management of dyslipidemia.

Dyslipidemia is a leading cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other related cardio- vascular disorders (CVDs). It is known that the occurrence of CHD is positively correlated with high total cholesterol and even more strongly with low density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast LDL Cholesterol, high level of HDL cholesterol has been associated with a decreased risk for heart disease (Clark et al, 2012). Efforts therefore have extensively been directed towards to reduce the risk of CVDs through the regulation of cholesterol (Adaramoye, 2008).

Kaka bitters like most other bitters is claimed to be an effective therapy for the management of abnormal blood lipid metabolism. However, there is a dearth of scientific data to support the folkloric use of this bitters in the treatment of abnormal lipid-related diseases (Adaramoye, 2008).

The present study therefore, was designed to provide scientific proof of the use of Kaka bitters in the management of dyslipidemia.

1.1     LITURATURE REVIEW

1.1.1 BITTERS – An Overview

1.1.1.1        HISTORY OF BITTERS

BIBLICAL VIEW       

Mentions of herbal bitters with therapeutic effects were made in the Christian Holy Bible bitters. The Psalmist, king David talked about the “herb for the service of man… which strengthened man’s heart” (Psalm 104: 14, 15 KJV). Apostle Paul mentioned “wine (liquor) for thy stomach’s sake (i.e. aperitif, digestif, carminative, etc.) and thine own infirmities (who knows, may be antimicrobial, anti-genotoxic, astringent, diuretic or laxative involving infirmities) 1 Timothy 5:23. The name “bitters” to mean these drinks was used in different bible passages including James 3:11.

CONTEMPORARY VIEW                                                                

It is in literature that the Angostura bitters was first compounded by a German physician, Dr. Johann Gottieb Benjamin Siegert in Venezuela in 1824 as a cure for sea sickness and had been discovered long before this. The bitter was reported to have effects of settling mild case of nausea, and also an apertif, digestive and carminative properties. The origin of herbal bitters has been tracked down to more than 5,000 years ago, possibly due to the opening of trade route with China (Oyewo et al, 2013b).

1.1.1.2        GENERAL MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF BITTERS

Bitters generally are known to have

  • Anti-inflammatory and antiedemateous properties
  • Anti-HIV activity
  • Anti bacterial and antifungal activities
  • Anticancer and lymphocyte activation dual activities
  • Immuno-stimulant activity (Botanical, 2013)
  • Anti-oxidant activity
  • Hepato protective activity
  • Wound Heading activity
  • Spasmolytic and spasmogenic dual activities
  • Anti-viral activity (Sahu and pady, 2013)
  • Insecticidal activity
  • Heart inhibits
  • Genotoxic and anti genotoxic dual activities (Banaraso et al, 2009).

Vendor Information

  • Store Name: project topics
  • Vendor: ProWriters
  • Address: 15 ikpa road
    Uyo
    Akwa Ibom
    520231
  • No ratings found yet!

Product Enquiry

Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our privacy policy

Close Menu
×
×

Cart

Need Help? Chat with us