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THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE OF PROPAGANDA ON PERSUADING VOTERS IN NIGERIA

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THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE OF PROPAGANDA ON PERSUADING VOTERS IN NIGERIA.

 

Abstract

The uses of language of propaganda in campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement.

 

This research project is thus a search part for the effect of language of propaganda on persuading voters in Nigeria.

 

Chapter one of the study lays an introduction for subsequent chapters. Following the background of the study, the problem statement and the objective of the study which provided basis for the significance of the study and the hypothesis were stated. The limitations of this study were also highlighted.

 

In the literature review as contained in chapter two, works of various authors, international and local journals were reviewed to elicit views on the effect of language of propaganda on persuading voters in Nigeria.

 

Chapter three, research methodology, description of population and sampling procedure for data collection were discussed. Methods of questionnaire design, determination of sampling size and questionnaire distribution were also highlighted.

 

Chapter four was based on analysis of data collected. This chapter was sub-divided into data analysis, hypothesis testing and summary. Percentage table, figure and narration were carefully employed for proper understanding and testing of hypothesis.

 

Finally, chapter five was divided into summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2    Statement of General Problem   –        –        –        –        5

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        7

1.6    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.7    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –        8

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.2    Theoretical Framework      –        –        –        –        –        11

2.3    Conceptual Framework      –        –        –        –        –        14

2.4    Empirical Review       –        –        –        –        –        –        16

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.4    Population of Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.5    Sample size and Sampling Techniques        –        –        –        33

3.6    Instrument for Data Collection   –        –        –        –        33

3.7    Validity of the Instrument –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument       –        –        –        –        34

3.9    Method of Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        34

3.10  Method of Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        34

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        –        36

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents     –        –        –        36

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –

4.5    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –

4.6    Discussion of Findings        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Man by nature is a political animal. This suggests that man is both gregarious and solitary. Politics focuses on ‘who gets what’, ‘when and how’. It determines the process through which power and influence are used in the promotion of certain values and interests (Lasswell, 1977). To be involved in politics therefore is demanding as certain things must be put into consideration. This is the use of language of propaganda in politics as a persuading tool which do have significant effect on voter’s behaviour and is however the centre-piece of this study. This can also be termed ‘political Language.

Political campaigns are an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision-making process within a specific group or environment. It can also be viewed as the mobilization of forces either by an organization or individuals to influence others in order to effect an identified and desired political change. It shows people and particularly, political candidates’ ability to sensitize the political community in relation to making the community see them as potentials and better representatives of the people. At any rate, every campaign is unique, and the ultimate goal of almost every political campaign is to win election (Lynn, 2009).

The priceless rights of our democracy are perhaps the dearest to all is the guarantee of the freedom to speak and publish what we want (with-in the limits of decency and the libel laws). However, this freedom of speech provides a scope for propaganda for those unscrupulous enough to exploit it for their own ends.

The word Propaganda itself used to be a respectable term, originally meaning the spreading of good news.  When Goebbels, Hitler and other Fascists began to use the word to describe their promotional activities, propaganda started its slide into disrepute. Today propaganda is associated with the insidious and subversive means of moving a person to predetermined ends (Danziger, 1998).

Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets, movies, radio, television, and posters. In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announce “spots” or as long-running advertorials. The uses of language of propaganda in campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, etc. The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination. What seems to be very important in any political campaign is the ‘message’ that is sent to the electorates. A campaign message is an important and potent tool that politicians use to express views and feelings to the public with the intention of reshaping and redirecting the electorates’ opinions to align with theirs with the use of language of propaganda. The message should be a simple statement that can be repeated severally throughout the campaign period to persuade the target audience or influence voters’ act in the candidates’ favour and describes the opposition in bad light. The campaign message ought to contain the salient ingredients that the candidate wishes to share with the voters and these must be repeated often in order to create a lasting impression on the voters. Propaganda is the expression of opinions or actions carried out deliberately by individuals or groups with a view to influence the opinions or actions of other individuals or groups for predetermined ends through psychological manipulations (Jacque, 1965). It is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide range of media in order to stimulate and sensitize the electorates and by extension, assist in harming an opponent.

Persuasion is a process by which someone, usually by reasoned arguments or logic, appeal to sound judgment in order to attain his set goals. A persuasive language soothes the voters particularly, when topics or issues that revolve around problems that affect voters are repeatedly mentioned in the course of the campaign. It also follows that the language of political campaign embodied in propaganda and rhetoric, is persuasive because most politicians adopt these linguistic devices to cajole the electorates to vote for them and their political parties by presenting themselves as the only capable individuals for the position (Omozuwa and Ezejideaku, 2007).