THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background of the Study. – – – – – – 1
- Statement of the Problems- – – – – – – 4
- Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 4
- Statement of Hypothesis – – – – – – – 5
- Significance of the Study – – – – – – 5
- Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 6
- Limitations of the study – – – – – – – 6
- Historical Background of PAN – – – – – 7
- Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Concept of Materials Requirement Planning – – – 12
2.2 Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) objectives – – – 15
2.3 Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) as a Planning Tool – 16
2.4 Methodology of a MRP project implementation/Alternative
Techniques – – – – – – – – 19
2.5 Material Requirement Planning (MRP) Inputs – – – 20
2.6 Organizational Measures for Effective Material Requirement Planning Implementation – – – – – – – – 22
2.7 Master Production Scheduling (PP-MP-MPS) and MRP – – 25
2.8 Benefits of Material Requirement Planning (MRP) – – 28
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 31
3.2 Research Population – – – – – – – 32
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – – 32
3.4 Methods of Data Collection – – – – – – 33
3.5 Justification for the Instrument Used – – – – – 34
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 34
3.7 Justification of Method Used – – – – – – 34
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Production is the transformation of one set of resources into a second set. In order to describe the constraints and opportunities for production, different methods have been developed through the years both in the practical engineering context and from an academic point of view (Grubbström, 1995). For the multi-level, multi-stage production-inventory system, an analysis applying the combined methodology of input-output analysis and the place transform has proven to be useful.
In practice, the managerial information system dealing with multi-level, multi-stage production-inventory systems is referred to as Material Requirements Planning (MRP). Here, product complexity as well as lead times are essential ingredients. In this research we allow these terms to be used in a synonymous way both for the theoretical analysis and as a name for the corresponding practical information system.
In a multi-level manufacturing system finished products, subassemblies, components, raw materials, etc., (items), are distinguished. MRP reduces a master production schedule of finished products into a time-phased suggested schedule of requirements of intermediate items to be manufactured and purchased, based on the estimated external demand for finished products. This “parts explosion” determining requirements from higher levels down to lower levels (upstream to downstream) traces the product structures.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is a computer-based inventory management system designed to assist production managers in scheduling and placing orders for dependent demand items. Dependent demand items are components of finished goods—such as raw materials, component parts, and subassemblies—for which the amount of inventory needed depends on the level of production of the final product. For example, in a plant that manufactures bicycles; dependent demand inventory items might include aluminium, tires, seats, and derailleurs.
The first MRP systems of inventory management evolved in the 1940s and 1950s. They used mainframe computers to explode information from a bill of materials for a certain finished product into a production and purchasing plan for components. Before long, MRP was expanded to include information feedback loops so that production personnel could change and update the inputs into the system as needed. The next generation of MRP, known as manufacturing resources planning or MRP II, also incorporated marketing, finance, accounting, engineering, and human resources aspects into the planning process. A related concept that expands on MRP is enterprise resources planning (ERP), which uses computer technology to link the various functional areas across an entire business enterprise.
MRP works backward from a production plan for finished goods to develop requirements for components and raw materials. “MRP begins with a schedule for finished goods that is converted into a schedule of requirements for the subassemblies, component parts, and raw materials needed to produce the finished items in the specified time frame,” William J. Stevenson wrote in his book Production/Operations Management. MRP breaks down inventory requirements into planning periods so that production can be completed in a timely manner while inventory levels—and related carrying costs—are kept to a minimum. Theoretically, it is often asserted that, when implemented and used properly, MRP can help production manager’s plan for capacity needs and allocate production time. However, it is also argued that MRP systems can be time consuming and costly to implement, which may put them out of range for some small businesses. In addition, the information that comes out of an MRP system is only as good as the information that goes into it. Thus, for MRP to be successfully implemented and sustained, current accurate bills of materials, part numbers, and inventory records must be maintained. These and similar, issues relating to the concept and practice of MRP is what this research work intends to examine.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
As stated earlier, MRP is a planning technique designed to assist production manager in scheduling and placing orders for dependent demand items such as raw materials, component parts and sub-assemblies relative to the desired level of production. However, it has been observed that the technique is not yet very popular among organization. Not only that, it is also argued that the system is so time consuming and costly that not every organization can adopt it.
In this research work, attempts have been made to critically assess the possible contribution of the MRP technique to the efficiency of manufacturing organization with particular focus on production cost.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to examine Material Requirement Planning as it ensures availability of material in an organization. The specific objectives are:
- To highlight the usefulness of MRP in PAN.
- To identify the various materials related operational problems in PAN that can be handled by the application of the MRP technique.
- To provide knowledge for future research work.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The study shall be guided by this hypothesis, thus;
H0: Material Requirement Planning is not a strategy for cost reduction in manufacturing organization
H1: Material Requirement Planning is a strategy for cost reduction in manufacturing organization
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work cannot be over emphasized because it is a requisite for the award of higher National Diploma in Production and Operations Management.
The study will help manufacturing organizations to appreciate and understand MRP as it affects productivity and reveal ways in which it could be applied for desired benefits.
Students in business and management studies can also expand their knowledge base from this research work. It can also be used as a reference material and a base for further research.
To the government, the study will introduce an efficient system of production planning to replace the traditional, inefficient practices found in public corporations.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work covers the Material Requirement Planning (MRP) as a cost reduction strategy in a manufacturing concern. It however, limits it scope to PAN Kaduna.