5,000.00 3,000.00





The study investigated perception of Employers of the quality of employed Nigeria tertiary graduates in Warri metropolitan Area of Delta State. The study sample population was made up of 120 respondents who were all heads of private or public organisations. A total of seven (5) research questions were raised out of which four (1) was answered and the other four (4) questions were hypothesised. Consequently, four (4) hypotheses were raised and analysed. The study found that: Employers of labour in both private and public sectors of the economy in Warri metropolis of Delta State rated the performance of graduates of tertiary education to be fairly good; the study also found that there was there was no significant difference between  observed graduates skills and employers expectation; another finding of the study was that there was no significant difference in graduates’ skills for male and female graduates; there was difference the job performance of graduates trained in part-time and full-time programmes; another finding of the study was that there was difference in the perception of private and public employers of the quality of graduates.  Based on the data analysed and findings of the study, the researcher concluded graduates skills were fairly good but training may be required to meet specific organisational needs. The researcher also concluded that males and females perform equally on their jobs while it is upheld that graduates in part-time and full-time programmes have differential performance on their jobs. And that because of the specific needs of private and public organizations, their perception of tertiary graduates differed.



Title page                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                             vi

Table of Contents                                                                               viii


Background to the Study                                                               1

Statement of Problem                                                                    6

Research Questions                                                                      8

Hypotheses                                                                                     9

Purpose of Study                                                                                     9

Significance of the Study                                                               10

Assumptions                                                                                   12

Scope and Delimitation of Study                                                  12

Definition of Terms                                                                         13


The Concept of Higher Education                                                        15

Quality                                                                                               17

Graduates’ quality and Higher Education                                             21

Employers’ Perception of Quality                                                        25

Employers’ Needs/Expectations                                                          28

Relationship between Graduates’ Quality and Employers’

Perception                                                                                          32

Graduates’ Quality in Part-time and Full-time Graduates                      33

Ensuring Quality/High Quality                                                             41

Employability                                                                                      45


Research Design                                                                                     50

Population                                                                                       51

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                          51

Instrumentation                                                                               52

Validation                                                                                         53

Method of Data Collection and Analysis                                               54




Response Rate                                                                               55

Data Analysis                                                                                  56

Analysis of Research Questions                                                  57

Analysis of Hypotheses                                                                 58

Discussion of Findings                                                                            62



Summary of the Research Findings                                             70

Conclusion                                                                                                71

Recommendations                                                                         72

References                                                                                               73

Appendix                                                                                         79









Background to the study


A major problem in Nigeria today is the unemployment of tertiary graduates. There are thousands of students that graduate every year from various tertiary institutions with good/honorary degrees; yet without employment. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2010), unemployment in Nigeria is running at around 19.7 percent on average… and almost half of 15-24 year olds living in urban areas are jobless. The secondary-school graduates was said to consist of the principal fraction of the unemployed, accounting for nearly 35% to 50%; 40% for age group within 20 to 24years and 31% for 15 to 19 years.  As imperfect as this statistics may be, it’s still does not tell a good story.

At a seminar with the theme: Youth, Employment Creation and Shared Growth in Africa held at the just concluded African Development Bank (AfDB’s) annual meetings in Lisbon, Portugal, Prof. Ernest Aryeetey, Vice Chancellor of the University of Ghana, noted that most of the things students are thought in schools today is quite different from what is needed in the labour market.

The rate of development in Nigeria has been on a very slow pace because of this. This slow development has been as a result of the low rate of production. And the low rate of production has been adduced to the incompetence of recent tertiary graduates. Questions have arisen as to why the case is like this. Some adduced reasons were that:

There are three major challenges currently facing the education sector in the country which apparently are the reason for the poor performance of the sub-sector. These challenges include: incessant lecturers strike resulting in massive brain drain, lack of teaching facilities in schools and poor funding.

–        there are not enough vacancies to match the large number of graduates

–        graduates’ specialization do not correspond with organizational needs in Nigeria

–        the graduates are technically incompetent/of low quality.  The author further emphasised that the president stressed the need for universities to focus attention to courses that could make graduates, creators of jobs rather than joining the pool of unemployed youths in the labour market, saying “We now need graduates who are problem-solvers and job creators, and whose characters will be enviable and unimpeachable at all times.” This study is basically concerned with the last adduced reason.

It is said that employers complain that these graduates are poorly prepared for work. They believe that academic standard has fallen over the past decades and that their degrees are no longer a guarantee of communication skills or technical competence. The essence of this project therefore is to determine if these tertiary graduates are meeting the expectations of their employers or not.

According to Andrew (2000) a large mismatch appears to exist between university output and labor market demand.

Their findings showed that the employment prospects of recent graduates have recently deteriorated. This is due to the weak Nigerian economy, the policy environment and inadequate level of skilled human resources, especially the quality of the tertiary trained portion of the workforce. The claim is that employers are not satisfied with the quality of graduates produced by the tertiary institutions and that they always have to retrain them before they become useful to their companies. So this project sets out to determine if the quality of tertiary graduates is as low as claimed or high. This deteriorating quality perception is supported by results from empirical research.

There is a reported a lower rating on the “reputation” of first generation Nigerian university graduates. They expressed a belief that the quality of university education has fallen. Studies by several researchers show that those who graduated in the 1980s gave more favorable ratings to questions regarding availability of study resources than those who graduated in the 1990s. This goes to show that study materials are lacking for the recent generation of graduates.

Many scholars have found that graduates of Nigerian universities rated supervised practical work and quality of academic advice received as very poor.

A casual interview of graduates in engineering, management and the sciences show that only few find most of the theories they learn in schools applicable in their daily work. In particular, graduates rated the practical aspects of their education very poorly. If this is so, it means the school syllabus is obsolete.

The present Nigeria graduate is a direct product of our society, a reflection of the decay and a mirror image of the loss of morals and values. These findings illustrate the wide gap that exists between what is taught in the universities and what the world of work requires. Stakeholders believe that it is the responsibility of our educational system to provide graduates with the background and skills necessary to be successful in their chosen fields of endeavor.

For this reason, when employers recruit graduates, they look for graduates from institutions with curricula that use new technology and emphasize current practices. One of the means to this end is a serious academic research orientation among the academic staffs in Nigerian institutions of higher learning. It is also a known fact that Nigerian public institutions have high enrolments without enough qualified instructors.

Although most employers are unhappy with the quality of graduates Nigerian tertiary institutions have turned out in recent times. They are well aware of the causes. Many employers are quick to state that the quality of these graduates is simply a reflection of the quality of academic staff, learning resources (libraries, laboratories, etc.) and funding limitations. A solution to the problems of staff quality is critical to any improvement in the quality of university graduates. The decline of staff quality is reflected in high rates of “brain drain,” the declining numbers of professors and assistant professors within the university system and their falling levels of post-graduate preparation. Andrew, et al. (2000) views the financial stability of the universities as tied to the fiscal fortunes of the state.

In the last two decades the federal budget has not been stable. It is tied closely to oil revenues, which have been unstable. The consequences of unstable funding are reflected in poorly-equipped laboratories, out-dated libraries, poorly- remunerated staff, crumbling academic facilities, and low research output. And these are the things that will build the quality of the graduates, positively or negatively.

Statement of Problem

The quality of tertiary institutions’ graduates has been called to question severally by politicians, educational stakeholders and employers of labour (who also are the end users of the graduates’ services).  There are reports that federal government would soon establish a special mechanism to rate each university in the country based on the quality of their products, particularly in terms of the quality of their graduates and outputs.

Experts in the educational sub-sector have blamed the high dependence of the industrial sector on low technical expertise and high rate of unemployment bedeviling the nation’s economy on the inability of Nigeria’s polytechnics and other tertiary institutions to produce the much-required technical manpower in the sub-sector sector. The complaint is that graduates performances are of low quality due to their low technical competence and therefore they don’t measure up with employer’s expectations.

Many therefore see an urgent need for institutions to be more active to their responsibilities in terms of reaching out to industries that will meet their requirements so that graduates from the nation’s universities and polytechnics will be efficiently utilized by the industrial sector.