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THE SUBSURFACE MAPS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

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THE SUBSURFACE MAPS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract

List of figures

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Basic Definition

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Types of subsurface maps

2.1  Structure contour maps

2.2  Isopach maps

2.3  Isochore maps

2.4  Cross sections

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Petrophysics/seismic interpretation data

3.1  Use of seismic in constructing structure Isopach maps

3.2  Use of Log in constructing Isopach/Isochore maps

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Application of subsurface maps

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Subsurface maps: A case study from Geofizika in Southeastern Cameroon Area.

 

CHAPTER SIX

Summary/Conclusion

References

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Subsurface maps are perhaps the most important vehicle used to explore for undiscovered hydrocarbons and to develop proven hydrocarbon reserves. However, the subject of subsurface mapping is probably the least discussed of interpretation and the construction of structure/Isopach maps, yet most important aspect of petroleum exploration and development. As a field developed from its initial discovery, a large volume of well, seismic and production data are obtained. With these data, the accuracy of the subsurface interpretation is improved through time.

The most accurate interpretation for any specifics oil and gas field can be prepared only after the field has been extensively drilled and most of the hydrocarbons have been depleted. However accurate and reliable subsurface interpretations and maps are required throughout all exploration and development activities.

1.2  BASIC DEFINITIONS

  1. Surface mapping: Is a way to visualize various geologic and hydrologic features in any dimension for a 1-D cross section to a 4-D production map.
  2. Seismic data: is a method of exploration, geophysics that used the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the earth subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
  3. Seismic interpretation: Is the determination of the geological significance of seismic data.
  4. Seismic stratigraphy: Is a techniques for interpreting stratigraphic information from seismic data.

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