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THE USE OF BITTERLEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

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THE USE OF BITTERLEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

5,000.00 3,000.00

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THE USE OF BITTERLEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE……………….……………………………………………………i

CERTIFICATION…………..…………………………………………..………ii

DEDICATION…………….……………………………………………………..iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………….iv

ABSTRACT…….…………………………………………………………………v

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………..vi

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………xiii

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………xiv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………. 1

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES…………………………………………………2

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………… 4

2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CEREALS……………………………………… 4

2.1.1 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CEREALS……………………………4

 

2.2 SORGHUM………………………………………………………………………..5

2.2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SORGHUM………………………………….. 6

2.2.2 SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF SORGHUM…………………………….7

2.2.3 GRAIN COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE…………………………7

2.2.4 CULTIVATION AND USES……………………………………………………9

2.3 MILLET…………………………………………………………………………..10

2.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MILLET……………………………………. 10

2.3.2 BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF MILLET………………………………11

2.3.3 PEST AND DISEASES OF MILLET………………………………………….11

2.3.4 USES OF MILLET……………………………………………………………..12

2.4 BREWING………………………………………………………………………..13

2.4.1 HISTORY OF BREWING……………………………………………………..13

2.4.2 BREWING PROCESSES………………………………………………………14

2.4.2.1 EUROPEAN BREWING PROCESS…………………………………………14

2.4.2.2 INDIGENOUS AFRICAN BREWING PROCESS………………………….17

2.5 RAW MATERIALS FOR BREWING……………………………………………18

2.5.1 STARCH SOURCE…………………………………………………………….18

 

2.5.2 ADJUNCTS…………………………………………………………………….19

2.5.3 WATER…………………………………………………………………………19

2.5.4 HOPS……………………………………………………………………………20

2.5.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOPS…………………………………………….21

2.5.4.2 TROPICAL HOP SUBTITUTES FOR BEER BREWING………………….22

2.5.5 YEAST…………………………………………………………………………25

2.5.5.1 BAKER’S YEAST……………………………………………………………25

2.5.5.2 BREWER’S YEAST…………………………………………………………26

2.6 BIOCHEMISTRY OF BREWING PROCESSES………………………………..26

2.6.1 MALTING AND KILNING……………………………………………………26

2.6.2 MILLING……………………………………………………………………….27

2.6.3 MASHING………………………………………………………………………27

2.6.4 SOURING………………………………………………………………………29

2.6.5 WORT BOILING………………………………………………………………29

2.6.6 FERMENTATION……………………………………………………………..31

2.6.6.1 ALCOHOL FERMENTATION………………………………………………35

2.6.6.2 TOP FERMENTATION……………………………………………………..36

 

2.6.6.3 BOTTOM FERMENTATION……………………………………………….37

2.6.7 PACKAGING…………………………………………………………………37

2.7 SPOILAGE………………………………………………………………………38

2.7.1 MICROORGANISM THAT DETERIORATE BEER…………………………38

2.8 TYPES OF BEER…………………………………………………………………38

2.8.1 EUROPEAN BEERS……………………………………………………………38

2.8.2 INDIGENOUS AFRICAN BEERS……………………………………………40

2.9 EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON MAN……………………………………………45

2.9.1 ALCOHOL AND HEALTH……………………………………………………45

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………………………47

3.1 MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………….47

3.1.1 CHEMICALS AND REAGENTS……………………………………………..47

3.1.2 GLASSWARES AND EQUIPMENT…………………………………………48

3.1.3 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES………………………………………………50

3.2 METHODS………………………………………………………………………50

3.2.1 METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SORGHUM BEER……………………..50

3.2.2 ACTIVATION OF YEAST……………………………………………………51

3.2.3 PREPARATION OF BITTERLEAF EXTRACT…………………………….51

3.2.4 PREPARATION OF REAGENT………………………………………………52

3.2.4.11% PHENOLPHTHALEIN…………………………………………………..52

3.2.4.2 0.1M NaOH SOLUTION…………………………………………………….52

3.3 METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS………………………………………..52

3.3.1 TOTAL ACIDITY……………………………………………………………..52

3.3.2 FIXED ACIDITY………………………………………………………………53

3.3.3 VOLATILE ACIDITY…………………………………………………………53

3.3.4 PH DETERMINATION………………………………………………………..53

3.3.5 SPECIFIC GRAVITY………………………………………………………….53

3.3.6 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID…………………………………………………54

3.3.7 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS……………………………………………….54

3.3.8 ETHANOL CONTENT………………………………………………………..55

3.3.9 MICROBIAL COUNT…………………………………………………………55

3.3.9.1 PROCEDURES FOR THE PREPARATION OF MEDIA…………………..55

3.3.9.2 PROCEDURE FOR CULTURING PLATES………………………………..56

3.3.9.3 PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS………………..57

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS………………………………………………………………………58

4.1 RESULTS FOR TOTAL ACIDITY, FXED ACIDITY, VOLATILE ACIDITY                    AND PH OF SORGHUM BEER……………………………………….……58

4.2THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TOTAL ACIDITY, FIXED     ACIDITY, VOLATILE-ACIDITY AND PH RESULT …………….……….58

4.3 RESULTS FOR ETHANOL CONTENT, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, TDS AND TSS    FOR SORGHUM BEER……………..……………………………………….59

4.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT, SPECIFIC           GRAVITY, TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) AND TOTAL          SUSPENDED SOLID (TDS) RESULTS ……………………………………60

4.5 AVERAGE MEAN PARAMETERS GENERATED FROM HOPPED AND           UNHOPPED SORGHUM BEER……………………………………………61

4.6 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE AVERAGE PARAMETERS             GENERATED FROM SORGHUM BEER WITH AND WITHOUT             HOPS………………………………………………………………………….61

4.7 MICROBIAL COUNT FOR BENCH STORED SORGHUM BEER WITH AND WITHOUT HOP……………………………………………………………………62

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………64

 

5.1 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….67

5.2 RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………68

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………..69

APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………………….74

APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………………… ..78

APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………..79

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Alcoholic beverage produced from cereals in Africa……………………..40

Table 2: Average kaffir beer analysis……………………………………………….42

Table 3: Total acidity, Fixed acidity, Volatile acidity and PH values of sorghum beer       with and without hop substitute…………………………………………….58

Table 4: Ethanol content, Specific gravity (day 1-day 5) and Total Dissolved  Solids        and Total Suspended Solids (day I and day 5) values of sorghum beer with and           without hop substitute……………………………………………………….59

Table 5: Specific gravity, Total acidity, Fixed acidity, Volatile acidity, TDS, TSS   and      pH values for with and without hop sorghum beers…………………………61

Table 6: Frequency of distribution of isolates in Sorghum beer with hops………62

Table 7: Table 7: Frequency of distribution of isolates in Sorghum beer without hops

………………………………………………………………………………..63

 

 

 

                                                           

                                                           

                                               

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1: Sorghum bicolor……………………………………………………………….6

Fig 2: Pearl millet……………………………………………………………………10

Fig 3: Hop cone………………………………………………………………………20

Fig 4 Vernonia amygdalina…………………………………………………………23

Fig 5: A schematic representation of glucose degradation under aerobic and anaerobic             condition…………….………………………………………………………..32

Fig 6: The Glycolytic pathway………………………………………………………33

Fig 7: Some important fates of glycolysis………………………………………………34

Fig 8: Flowchart for the traditional process of kunu-zaki…………………………..46

Fig 9: Total Acidity, Fixed Acidity and Volatile Acidity values of Sorghum beer with       and without hop substitute…………………………………………………..59

Fig 10: Ethanol content, Specific Gravity, Total Dissolved and Suspended Solids value of Sorghum beer with and without hop           substitutes………………………….……………………………….…………61

Fig 11: S.G= specific gravity, T.A= Total acidity (g/100ml), F.A= Fixed acidity      (g/100ml), V.A= Volatile acidity (g/100ml), TDS= Total dissolved solids          (×105ppm), TSS= Total suspended solids (×105ppm), PH, E.C= Ethanol        content (%v/v)………………………………………………………………63

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The word beer derives from the Latin word bibere meaning to drink (Okafor, 2007). Beer is the world’s oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Grossman (1995) defined beer as a general name given to beverages resulting from the germination of a malt or cereal grain. The process of brewing beer is called brewing. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches mainly derived from cereal grains most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used (Gutcho, 1976). In Nigeria today, barley has been replaced by some locally grown cereals such as sorghum or guinea corn, millet and maize as the principal raw materials. The tropical beers (African local beers) are known by different names in different part of the world; burukutu, otika and pito in Nigeria, maujek among the Nandi’s in Kenya, mowa in Malawi, kaffir beer in South Africa, merisa in Sudan, bouza in Ethiopia and pombe in some parts of East Africa (Okafor, 2007).

Burukutu is an indigenous alcoholic beverage. Burukutu, a popular alcoholic drink among indigenes of the middle belt region of Nigeria, is a local brew made from fermented sorghum and other protein enriched grains (Ekundayo, 1969). The age long drink, also known as BKT, serves as a source of alcohol for those who lack the financial means to patronize refined brew like beer and other foreign or imported drinks it is produced mainly from the grains of guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare and

Sorghum bicolor). The process of production of burukutu involves malting, mashing, fermentation and maturation as described by Ekundayo (1969).The production process of these indigineous drinks involves fermentation at its initial production stage and comes out as an alcoholic drink. The microorganisms associated with fermentation include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces chavelieria and Leuconostocmesteroides (Faparusi et al., 1973).

Sorghum is a large variable genus with many cultivars (Ettasoe, 1972). The method employed in brewing sorghum beer here involves, malting, mashing, wort boiling with hops, fermentation, (using brewer’s yeast and bakers yeast) and packaging. The tropical sourced hop extracts used here is Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) which have been found to contain an anti bactericidal agent which is capable of extending the useful life of these indigenous beers (Okoh et al., 1999).

Chemical analysis on the prepared sorghum beer such as; ethanol content, PH value, specific gravity, fixed acidity, total acidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids(TSS) were analysed quantitatively, using different methods.

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