THE USE OF LANGUAGE FOR EFFECT IN ELECTIONEERING CAMPAIGN
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Tribute to my Parents vi
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
- Introduction 1
1.1. Statement of Problem 2
1.2. Aim of the Study 3
1.3. Collection of Data 3
1.4. Scope of Study 4
1.5. Limitation of Study 4
1.6. Theoretical Framework 5
1.7. Definition of Term 8
1.8. Nigeria Political History 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0. Introduction 14
2.1. Politics 15
2.2. Language and Politics 17
2.3. Propaganda 18
2.4. Speech Acts Theory and Communication 20
CHAPTER THREE: PROPAGANDA
3.0. Introduction 22
3.1. Abusive Expression 24
3.2. Repetition 26
3.3 Name Calling 29
3.4. Word Coinages 31
3.5. Vagueness 33
3.6. Exaggeration 35
3.7. Attacks on Party Logo and Slogan 38
CHAPTER FOUR: OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSION
4.0. Introduction 43
4.1. Observation 43
4.2. Conclusion 45
4.3. Recommendation 46
The Work Propaganda in Politics, the use of language for effect in electioneering campaign seek to x-ray the role language play as an agent of influence. This work considers the influence of propaganda on the electorate making use of some linguistics devices, like: Repetition, Word Coinages, Exaggeration, Attacks on Party Logo and Slogan, Vagueness, Abusive expression etc.
Propaganda has been the deliberate distortion of fact in order to influence people to change their line of thought or to blindly maintain their line of thought. Language in the other sense is the tool or medium via which this intention is achieved because you may have a thought of something but if not communicated it cannot achieve your desired effect. Generally, the researcher is concerned with campaign of calumny in 2007 general elections in Nigeria, necessary recommendations will be made at the end of the work.
Propaganda is one unique device of politics. This is mostly observed in any electioneering campaign. Longe and Ofuanu (1996:17) argue that propaganda is solely introduced to damage character.
“Propaganda means information, doctrines opinion etc that are often derogatory, as in political propaganda Films and plays.
These are said to be derogatory because they tend to damage or take away credit from something or someone. The sole purpose of propaganda is to misinform and mislead and to consciously indoctrinate.“
The use of propaganda many times, present the propagandist (that is the person speaking) as a saint and the person the propaganda is aimed at as the devil that is not fit to lead.
The focus of this research however is to show how language plays a significant role in political propaganda as it relates to electioneering campaign.
This work shall focus more on the 2007 general electioneering campaign in Nigeria. Linguistics device propagandist use to achieve their aim in the fare mentioned electioneering campaign shall be brought to the fore.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been observed that previous researches addressed the role language plays in persuading and educating the electorate during electioneering campaign .This is also known as rhetoric’s. The researcher observed that much has not been done on the effects of language on the contestants and the electorate with regard to campaign of calumny (propaganda) is yet to be fully studied, with this in mind, this study shall show that language has a great effect on both the electorate and contestants as observed during the last 2007 general election in Nigeria.
- AIM OF THE STUDY
Where ever politics evolves, propaganda is a major tool in deciding the vote. Propaganda itself is not possible without language. This work is therefore aimed at showing through vivid analysis that propaganda in politics makes use of linguistics device in deciding where the podium of influence should swing towards. This work will also show the forms and features of propaganda as it relates to language use.
- COLLECTION OF DATA
This work sourced for data from both primary and secondary sources. Also information relating to the topic under study was also sourced for from the internet.
As regards primary source, we got some texts on language and politics and we believe they shall be of great help in making this work a success. Secondary source involved information concerning political speeches of 2007 general election in Nigeria.
- SCOPE OF STUDY
This work will dwell in language use and speech act. The study will focus on the language use from the communication point of view and the effect it intend to have on the hearer, employing these features: word coinage, vagueness, repetition, abusive expression, attack on party name and slogan etc. being a persuasive styles adopted by the politicians in political campaign as available in data collected.
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The greatest limitation in this study is finance. Finance needed in carrying out a standard research is not always easy for any student including researcher .One actually need a lot of fund to source for credible information and data as regarding the use of propaganda. Time was also a big constrain as the researcher was made to work under a given period of time which also affected the work.
1.7 NIGERIA POLITICAL HISTORY
Before 1960, the people of later day Nigeria had gone through close to two centuries of British colonial over-lordship. The duration of Britain colonial control over different parts of Nigeria varied, depending on the time the people of each area were brought under effective British control, long before the British eventually occupied the territories of Nigeria, they had maintained contacts with the people, mainly on commercial grounds. It was the developments in that European scramble and Partition of Africa which culminated in the European sharing African territories among themselves in the Berlin conference of 1884/1885. From that partition the people of Nigeria came under the British sphere of influence. It was in the post-Berlin conference era that the British got to play a decisive role in bringing together the diverse people that formed the nation Nigeria. Erhagbe (2003).
Nigeria joined the host of independence nation October 1st, 1960. The new republic incorporated a number of people with aspiration of their sovereign nation. The newly independent Nigeria government was a coalition of conservative parties. The Nigeria people congress (NPC), a party dominated by Northern / Islamic faithful and the Igbo / Christian dominated National council of Nigeria and Cameroon (NCNC).
The NCNC led by Nnamdi Azikiwe became Nigeria’s first indigenous head of government in 1960. The opposition was the comparatively liberal Action group (AG), which was highly dominated by the Yorubas and led by Obafemi Awolowo. The nation parted with its British legacy in 1963 by declaring itself a federal Republic with Azikiwe as the first president and Ahj. Tafawa Balewa as the prime Minister.
When election came about in 1963 the Action Group (AG) was out to maneuver for the control of western Nigeria by the Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) an amalgamation of conservative Yoruba politicians backed heavily by the federal Government amidst weak progressive alliance”
Record also shows that between 1966 and 1979, Nigeria experienced military government. Beginning from 1979; Nigeria participated in a brief return to democracy when General Olusegun Obasanjo handed over to a democratically elected civilian government led by Alhaji. Shehu Shagari.
The Shehu government was viewed as corrupt and incompetent by the military .As a result of this, the military led by Mahammadu Buhari over throw the government shortly after the election of 1984.
On June 12, 1993 Nigeria attempted returning to democracy as election was conducted by the Babagida regime. The result was not announced even when the major states result show that Chief Moshood Abiola was already having a landslide victory.
Chief Ernest Shonekan was appointed to head the care – taker regime and was soon over thrown by General Sani Abacha.
Nigeria re – achieved democracy in 1999 when he elected retired general Olusegun Obasanjo as the president ending almost thirty -three years of military rule. Umaru Yar’adua of people Democratic Party came into power in the general election of 2007.
Between 1960 and 2007, election have been held seven times; 1965, 1979,1993,1999,2003 and recently in 2007 .All these election were conducted amidst heavy use of propaganda. The effect of language in the use of this research .our attention however is based primarily on the 2007 general election.
In conclusion it has been observed that when Nigeria got her independent that issues of who should lead the nation has always been a struggle among individuals and political association, and for anybody to win the confidence of the people , he must be able to through language communicate to them why he should be selected.