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Nigeria as a democratic nation in Africa uses a conventional paper ballot election system for the whole electoral process. Inquiries show that this conventional system has lost not just popular among the people but trust in the whole electoral system as it has drawbacks; Hence, calls for a reliable solution. These drawbacks range from electoral malpractices of all forms to violence in the polling units and across. This paper aims at introducing a multimodal biometric system for E-voting. The proposed system is an extension of the Electronic voting; It has a major advantage by using the multimode biometric analysis to identify an individual. As there are many problems
related to the unimodal biometric system, such as noisy sensor data, non-universality, lack of individuality, non-availability of invariant representations. To solve these problems a multimode biometric system is recommended. It is characterized by a step-by-step operation and defined set of requirements to achieve the operation, which is better than the conventional paper ballot system in terms of accuracy, security, and authentication.
Keywords: Electoral Process, Electronic voting, Multimodal biometric system, unimodal
biometric system

Voting allows groups of people to make decisions, this is used to choose between tough plans of actions or to decide who is best appropriate to be conferred a prize. Therefore, voting is a process that allows a group of individuals to choose between several selections. However, each country has certain criteria for voting regarding the elect leader of their own choice during the election period. Therefore, keeping the accurate record of voters is very relevant and most important. Voters registration, unfortunately, is usually carried out using the old-fashioned file system of paper sheets in most developing countries.

Political experts have it that the manual record and counting of the ballot paper to elect leaders into various posts in developing countries is becoming burdensome. Lack of adequate record-keeping has indeed degenerated to a greater level, especially in the Nigerian political system. Election malpractices have consistently remained a bane of the Nigerian political system. A common form of political malpractices is the deliberate impersonation of the voters. Part of the requirement for a credible election is that the real voter is allowed to vote for the candidate of their choice.

If this conventional paper system is going to be replaced with any system, such a system must perform better in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Failure of the new voting system will jeopardize democracy and trust in the system. The recent election system in Nigeria now shows that citizens elect the federal level a candidate known as The President (head of state) and with his assistance called Vice-President.

Apart from this, the National Assembly (the legislative) has two chambers; the House of Representatives, which contains 360 members, elects for a four-year term in single-seat constituencies; and the Senate has 109 members, elects for a four-year term. Each of the 36 states in Nigeria is divided into 3 senatorial districts, each of which represents one senator, while the Federal Capital Territory represents by only one senator (Ola Awoniyi, 2006).

  1.1 Background to the Study
The technology used in the areas of politics has importantly impacted the world today. The emerged use of the internet for collaborative purposes has exposed individuals to security issues, which also affects the voting system. Therefore, securing and protecting data of voters are now of great importance and has become a great concern. Any system put forward for use during the electoral process must be robust enough to detect various fraudulent behaviours and activities while showing every level of transparency for both the voters and candidates. The
Nigerian system is one in which election results are being perverted in a bid to favour a specific candidate. This, however, is a menace to the society and as such the need for a Multimodal voting system.

An election is said to be credible if it possesses the following key elements free and fair;  devoid of partiality, duplicitous and all forms of election malpractices. Candidate impersonation is one of the prominent forms of election malpractices due to a lack of adequate record of eligible voters by the electoral bodies in the developing countries. The idea of this act is that persons can vote as many times as possible while eluding officials in charge. However, that is just one side to it, as in some other cases, persons below the official age to engage in the
franchise are allowed to do so in a bid to spurring a candidate to victory.

The aforementioned problems can be largely attributed to the inefficiencies in the current traditional methods of the electoral process. Therefore, the paper proposed a secured and accurate biometric-based model to ameliorate and to a larger point, overcome the raised problems. The system of voting by which a voter makes his/her choice with the aid of a computer is called electronic voting. The system allows a voter to choose with the use of touch-
screen display, while a voter with visual disabilities can use audio interfaces.

1.2 Statement of the problem
The Nigeria voting system is characterized by violence and malpractices, where underaged individuals are permitted to exercise the franchise, others are disenfranchised deliberately with cases of violence lurking the polling units. Other cases have it where an individual possesses more than one voter’s card. These problems however not peculiar to the Nigerian terrain are a menace to the society as well as a potent threat to democracy in
countries using a manual means of voting.

In a bid to combat the aforementioned problems the paper, therefore, proposed a secure voting system using multimodal identification and verification system for voting and registration of voters. The purpose is to uniquely identify voters and to eliminate the possibility of double registration at the polling booth by the voters. The issue of double voting will also be abolished, as further study can look into web-based and mobile-based automated voting system, which allows a voter to cast their vote anywhere and anytime.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


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