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WAR AGAINST TERRORISM; NIGERIAN DIPLOMATIC DIMENSION AGAINST BOKO HARAMINSURGENCY

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WAR AGAINST TERRORISM; NIGERIAN DIPLOMATIC DIMENSION AGAINST BOKO HARAMINSURGENCY

CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION

The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. In 2013, more than 1,000 died in the conflict. The violence escalated dramatically in 2014, with 10,849 deaths. The insurgency has since spread to Cameroon, Chad, and Niger thus becoming a major regional conflictBoko Haram conducted its operations more or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence. That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group’s activities following reports that its members were arming themselves.Prior to that the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organization, including that of a military officer.When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly “used fuel-laden motorcycles” and “bows with poison arrows” to attack a police station.The group’s founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was also killed during this time while still in police custody.After Yusuf’s killing, AbubakarShekau became the leader and still holds the position as of January 2015 .After the killing of M. Yusuf, the group carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010. It resulted in the killing of four people. Since then, the violence has only escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity. In September 2010, a Bauchi prison break freed more than 700 Boko Haram militants, replenishing their force.On 29 May 2011, a few hours after Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as president, several bombings purportedly by BokoHaram killed 15 and injured 55. On 16 June, Boko Haram claimed to have conducted the Abuja police headquarters bombing, the first known suicide attack in Nigeria. Two months later the United Nations building in Abuja was bombed, signifying the first time that Boko Haram attacked an international organization. In December, it carried out attacks in Damaturu killing over a hundred people, subsequently clashing with security forces in December, resulting in at least 68 deaths. Two days later on Christmas Day, Boko Haram attacked several Christian churches with bomb blasts and shootings.In January 2012, AbubakarShekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf’s death in 2009. Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009. By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths .On 15 April 2014, terrorists abducted about 276 female students from a college in Chibok in Borno state. The abduction was widely attributed to Boko Haram. It was reported that the group had taken the girls to neighboring Cameroon and Chad where they were to be sold into marriages at a price below a Dollar. The abduction of another eight girls was also reported later. These kidnappings raised public protests, with some protesters holding placards bearing the Twitter tag #bringbackourgirls which had caught international attention. Several countries pledged support to the Nigerian government and to help their military with intelligence gathering on the whereabouts of the girls and the operational camps of Boko Haram.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In May 2013, Nigerian governmental forces launched an offensive in the Borno region in an attempt to dislodge Boko Haram fighters after a state of emergency was called on 14 May. The state of emergency, which is still in force as of May 2014, applies to the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa in northeastern Nigeria. Starting in late January 2015, a coalition of military forces from Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger began a counter-insurgency campaign against Boko Haram.  On 4 February, the Chad Army killed over 200 Boko Haram militants. Soon afterwards, Boko Haram launched an attack on the Cameroonian town of Fotokol, killing 81 civilians, 13 Chadian soldiers and 6 Cameroonian soldiers. In February 17, 2015, the Nigerian military retook Monguno in a coordinated air and ground assault.On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram’s leader AbubakarShekau pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant via an audio message posted on the organization’s Twitter account. Nigerian army spokesperson Sami UsmanKukasheka said the pledge was a sign of weakness and that Shekau was like a “drowning man”. That same day, five suicide bomb blasts left 54 dead and 143 wounded. On 12 March 2015, ISIL’s spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani released an audiotape in which he welcomed the pledge of allegiance, and described it as an expansion of the group’s caliphate to West Africa.On 24 March 2015, residents of Damasak, Nigeria said that Boko Haram had taken more than 400 women and children from the town as they fled from coalition forces. On March 27, the Nigerian army captured Gwoza, which was believed to be the location of Boko Haram headquarters. On election day, 28 March 2015, Boko Haram extremists killed 41 people, including a legislator, to discourage hundreds from voting.In March 2015, Boko Haram lost control of the Northern Nigerian towns of Bama and Gwoza (believed to be their headquarters) to the Nigerian army. The Nigerian authorities said that they had taken back 11 of the 14 districts previously controlled by Boko Haram. In April, four Boko Haram camps in the sambisa forest were overrun by the Nigerian military who freed nearly 300 females. Boko Haram forces were believed to have retreated to the mandara mountains along the Nigeria-Cameroon border. On 16 March, the Nigerian army said that it had recaptured Bama. On 27 March 2015, the day before the Nigerian presidential election, the Nigerian Army announced that it had recaptured the town of Gwoza from BokoHaram.By April 2015,the Nigerian military was reported to have retaken most of the areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in North-Eastern Nigeria except for the SambisaForest.In May 2015, the Nigerian military announced that they had released about 700 women from camps in SambisaForest.The Nigerian government has equally seek the support of the United State of Americas  in this direction and with joint US/ Nigeria military action hope rises for the elimination of Boko haram insurgency in Nigeria.

1.3    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The threat to lives and property posed by terrorism in Nigeria had escalated in recent times leading to the death of thousands of Nigerians, loss of property,while many are being held hostage.Consequently the Nigerian government through its military and security forces declared a total war

The problem confronting this research is to appraise the war on terrorism; Nigeria’s diplomatic initiative against the Boko Haram insurgency.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is terrorism?
  2. What is the nature of the boko haram insurgency in Nigeria?
  • What is the effect of the boko haram insurgency?
  1. What is the nature of the war against the boko haram insurgency in Nigeria?
  2. What is the nature of Nigeria’s diplomatic initiative against the boko haram insurgency?

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To appraise the nature of terrorism in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the nature of the bokoharam insurgency in Nigeria.
  • To determine the effect of boko haram insurgency.
  1. To appraise the war against the boko haram insurgency
  2. To determine Nigeria’s diplomatic initiative against the boko haram insurgency.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the war on terrorism an appraisal of Nigeria’s diplomatic initiative against the boko haram insurgency.

 

1.7LITERATURE REVIEW     

Boko Haram, a militant Islamic group in Nigeria has continued to be a threat to the peace and security in the country. The group is not only causing havoc in the country but also the neighboring countries. This terror group has so far caused havoc that is better imagined than felt. There has been a heated debate all over on the political, social and economic consequences of this militant group. Of course there are critical implications of terrorist activities on economic, social and political development in Nigeria. Apart from the widespread loss of property and life being witnessed in the northern part of Nigeria, the activities of Boko Haram have severe economic consequences on the Nigerian economy.

  • Drastic plummeting of foreign direct investment

A politically stable country is more likely to attract more foreign direct investment than terror-prone country. The Boko Haram have caused a lot of tension in the country since 2010 and this has resulted in foreign direct investment reducing drastically. Based on reports released by the World Investment Report in the year 2013, it is clear that the foreign direct investment flows into Nigeria dropped by almost 21% in just one year.

 

From an economics perspective, any country that experiences such an acute drop in FDI in such a short period is prone to an unimaginable economic strain. The trade sector is the most hit by these dynamics. Besides, domestic capital becomes has become less efficient because it’s not sufficiently supplemented by foreign direct investment.

 

Remember that the Nigerian oil sector and the country’s GDP depend heavily on the inflow of FDI. Therefore the political instability continues to cripple the oil sector as well as the country’s GDP.

 

The Nigerian government is using a lot of material resources to control violent crimes and curb terrorism, an initiative which is really expensive. In just one year, the Nigerian government spends a lot of money on defense and security. These resources could be used in other sectors to better the economy. The cost of curbing the activities of this terror group brings in poverty, political destabilization, and eating up the nation’s vast capital.

 

The state of insecurity created by the Boko Haram is slowly killing key industries in the country. The transport and tourism sector are the worst hit. The country stands to lose a lot because these industries are the key foreign exchange earners, a source of employment to entrepreneurs and major tax revenue generators.

Boko Haram has led to mass emigration of citizens who are non-indigenous to the northern region of Nigeria. This has a negative impact on the profitability of business in the region. It can be noted that a number of banks are closing down due to a decrease of economic activities in the area.e mass withdrawal of people from the north implies that economic affairs in the area are completely stagnated.

 

Locally, Boko Haram has caused a decline of the “Okada” business in Yobe and Borno states. This has even prompted the government to ban the business in some parts of these states.

 

Business between various states has also been crippled. Residents of southern states are afraid to visit the northern area and vice versa.

 

Boko Haram has tainted the image of Nigerians to a point that on an international level, Nigerians are treated with suspicion. Even foreigners do not want to visit Nigerian at all costs. It’s disheartening to find that Nigeria , a colorful country which was once believed to be the “Giant of Africa” is being brought down by a selfish and inconsiderate terror group.

 

 

1.8   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study intends to determine, the nature, causes,effect of the boko haram insurgency

As well as project the war and achievement of theNigerian government through diplomatic initiative and its military and security forces against the boko haram insurgency

1.9THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

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